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FMVSS No. 108 Text

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[Code of Federal Regulations]
[Title 49, Volume 5, Parts 400 to 999]
[Revised as of October 1, 1999]
From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access
[CITE: 49CFR571.108]
 
[Page 226-299]
 
                        TITLE 49--TRANSPORTATION
 
                   CHAPTER V--NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC
                    SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT
                            OF TRANSPORTATION
 
PART 571--FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS--Table of Contents
 
            Subpart B--Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards
 
Sec. 571.108  Standard No. 108; Lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment.
 
    S1.  Scope. This standard specifies requirements for original and 
replacement lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment.
    S2.  Purpose. The purpose of this standard is to reduce traffic 
accidents and deaths and injuries resulting from traffic accidents, by 
providing adequate illumination of the roadway, and by enhancing the 
conspicuity of motor vehicles on the public roads so that their presence 
is perceived and their signals understood, both in daylight and in 
darkness or other conditions of reduced visibility.
    S3.  Application. This standard applies to:
    (a) Passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, 
trailers (except pole trailers and trailer converter dollies), and 
motorcycles;
    (b) Retroreflective sheeting and reflex reflectors manufactured to 
conform to S5.7 of this standard; and
    (c) Lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment for 
replacement of like equipment on vehicles to which this standard 
applies.
    S4.  Definitions.
    Aiming Reference Plane means a plane which is perpendicular to the 
longitudinal axis of the vehicle and tangent to
 
[[Page 227]]
 
the forwardmost aiming pad on the headlamp.
    Beam contributor means an indivisible optical assembly including a 
lens, reflector, and light source, that is part of an integral beam 
headlighting system and contributes only a portion of a headlamp beam.
    Cargo lamp is a lamp that is mounted on a multipurpose passenger 
vehicle, truck, or bus for the purpose of providing illumination to load 
or unload cargo.
    Cutoff means a generally horizontal, visual/optical aiming cue in 
the lower beam that marks a separation between areas of higher and lower 
luminance.
    Direct reading indicator means a device that is mounted in its 
entirety on a headlamp or headlamp aiming or headlamp mounting 
equipment, is part of a VHAD, and provides information about headlamp 
aim in an analog or digital format.
    Effective projected luminous lens area means that area of the 
projection on a plane perpendicular to the lamp axis of that portion of 
the light-emitting surface that directs light to the photometric test 
pattern, and does not include mounting hole bosses, reflex reflector 
area, beads or rims that may glow or produce small areas of increased 
intensity as a result of uncontrolled light from small areas (\1/2\ deg. 
radius around the test point).
    Filament means that part of the light source or light emitting 
element(s), such as a resistive element, the excited portion of a 
specific mixture of gases under pressure, or any part of other energy 
conversion sources, that generates radiant energy which can be seen.
    Flash means a cycle of activation and deactivation of a lamp by 
automatic means continuing until stopped either automatically or 
manually.
    Fully opened means the position of the headlamp concealment device 
in which the headlamp is in the design open operating position.
    Headlamp concealment device means a device, with its operating 
system and components, that provides concealment of the headlamp when it 
is not in use, including a movable headlamp cover and a headlamp that 
displaces for concealment purposes.
    Headlamp test fixture means a device designed to support a headlamp 
or headlamp assembly in the test position specified in the laboratory 
tests and whose mounting hardware and components are those necessary to 
operate the headlamp as installed in a motor vehicle.
    Integral beam headlamp means a headlamp (other than a standardized 
sealed beam headlamp designed to conform to paragraph S7.3 or a 
replaceable bulb headlamp designed to conform to paragraph S7.5) 
comprising an integral and indivisible optical assembly including lens, 
reflector, and light source, except that a headlamp conforming to 
paragraph S7.8.5.2 or paragraph S7.8.5.3 may have a lens designed to be 
replaceable.
    Multiple compartment lamp means a device which gives its indication 
by two or more separately lighted areas which are joined by one or more 
common parts, such as a housing or lens.
    Multiple lamp arrangement means an array of two or more separate 
lamps on each side of the vehicle which operate together to give a 
signal.
    Remote reading indicator means a device that is not mounted in its 
entirety on a headlamp or headlamp aiming or headlamp mounting 
equipment, but otherwise meets the definition of a direct reading 
indicator.
    Replaceable bulb headlamp means a headlamp comprising a bonded lens 
and reflector assembly and one or two replaceable headlamp light 
sources, except that a headlamp conforming to paragraph S7.8.5.2 or 
paragraph S7.8.5.3 may have a lens designed to be replaceable.
    Replaceable light source means an assembly of a capsule, base, and 
terminals that is designed to conform to the requirements of Appendix A 
or Appendix B of part 564 Replaceable Light Source Information of this 
Chapter.
    Vehicle headlamp aiming device or VHAD means motor vehicle 
equipment, installed either on a vehicle or headlamp, which is used for 
determining the horizontal or vertical aim, or both the vertical and 
horizontal aim of the headlamp.
    Visually/optically aimable headlamp means a headlamp which is 
designed to
 
[[Page 228]]
 
be visually/optically aimable in accordance with the requirements of 
paragraph S7.8.5.3 of this standard.
    S5.  Requirements.
    S5.1  Required motor vehicle lighting equipment.
    S5.1.1  Except as provided in succeeding paragraphs of this S5.1.1, 
each vehicle shall be equipped with at least the number of lamps, 
reflective devices, and associated equipment specified in Tables I and 
III and S7, as applicable. Required equipment shall be designed to 
conform to the SAE Standards or Recommended Practices referenced in 
those tables. Table I applies to multipurpose passenger vehicles, 
trucks, trailers, and buses, 80 or more inches in overall width. Table 
III applies to passenger cars and motorcycles and to multipurpose 
passenger vehicles, trucks, trailers, and buses, less than 80 inches in 
overall width.
    S5.1.1.1  A truck tractor need not be equipped with turn signal 
lamps mounted on the rear if the turn signal lamps at or near the front 
are so constructed (double-faced) and so located that they meet the 
requirements for double-faced turn signals specified in SAE Standard 
J588e, Turn Signal Lamps, September 1970.
    S5.1.1.2  A truck tractor need not be equipped with any rear side 
marker devices, rear clearance lamps, and rear identification lamps.
    S5.1.1.3  Intermediate side marker devices are not required on 
vehicles less than 30 feet in overall length.
    S5.1.1.4  Reflective material conforming to Federal Specification L-
S-300, Sheeting and Tape, Reflective; Non-exposed Lens, Adhesive 
Backing, September 7, 1965, may be used for side reflex reflectors if 
this material as used on the vehicle, meets the performance standards in 
either Table I or Table IA of SAE Standard J594f, Reflex Reflectors, 
January 1977.
    S5.1.1.5  The turn signal operating unit on each passenger car, and 
multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, and bus less than 80 inches in 
overall width shall be self-canceling by steering wheel rotation and 
capable of cancellation by a manually operated control.
    S5.1.1.6  Instead of the photometric values specified in Table 1 of 
SAE Standards J222 December 1970, or J585e September 1977, a parking 
lamp or tail lamp, respectively, shall meet the minimum percentage 
specified in Figure 1a of the corresponding minimum allowable value 
specified in Figure 1b. The maximum candlepower output of a parking lamp 
shall not exceed that prescribed in Figure 1b, or of a taillamp, that 
prescribed in Figure 1b at H or above. If the sum of the percentages of 
the minimum candlepower measured at the test points is not less than 
that specified for each group listed in Figure 1c, a parking lamp or 
taillamp is not required to meet the minimum photometric value at each 
test point specified in SAE Standards J222 or J585e respectively.
    S5.1.1.7  A motorcycle turn signal lamp need meet only one-half of 
the minimum photometric values specified in Table 1 and Table 3 of SAE 
J588 NOV84 Turn Signal Lamps.
    S5.1.1.8  For each motor vehicle less than 30 feet in overall 
length, the photometric minimum candlepower requirements for side marker 
lamps specified in SAE Standard J592e Clearance, Side Marker, and 
Identification Lamps, July 1972, may be met for all inboard test points 
at a distance of 15 feet from the vehicle and on a vertical plane that 
is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle and located 
midway between the front and rear side marker lamps.
    S5.1.1.9  A boat trailer whose overall width is 80 inches or more 
need not be equipped with both front and rear clearance lamps provided 
an amber (to front) and red (to rear) clearance lamp is located at or 
near the midpoint on each side so as to indicate its extreme width.
    S5.1.1.10  Multiple license plate lamps and backup lamps may be used 
to fufill the requirements of the SAE Standards applicable to such lamps 
referenced in Tables I and III.
    S5.1.1.11  A stop lamp that is not optically combined, as defined by 
SAE Information Report J387 Terminology--Motor Vehicle Lighting NOV87, 
with a turn signal lamp, shall remain activated when the turn signal 
lamp is flashing.
    S5.1.1.12  On a motor vehicle, except a passenger car, whose overall 
width is 80 inches or more, measurements of the
 
[[Page 229]]
 
functional lighted lens area, and of the photometrics, of a multiple 
compartment stop lamp, and a multiple compartment turn signal lamp, 
shall be made for the entire lamp and not for the individual 
compartments.
    S5.1.1.13  Each passenger car, and each multipurpose passenger 
vehicle, truck, and bus of less than 80 inches overall width, shall be 
equipped with a turn signal operating unit designed to complete a 
durability test of 100,000 cycles.
    S5.1.1.14  A trailer that is less than 30 inches in overall width 
may be equipped with only one taillamp, stop lamp, and rear reflex 
reflector, which shall be located at or near its vertical centerline.
    S5.1.1.15  A trailer that is less than 6 feet in overall length, 
including the trailer tongue, need not be equipped with front side 
marker lamps and front side reflex reflectors.
    S5.1.1.16  A lamp designed to use a type of bulb that has not been 
assigned a mean spherical candlepower rating by its manufacturer and is 
not listed in SAE Standard J573d, Lamp Bulbs and Sealed Units, December 
1968, shall meet the applicable requirements of this standard when used 
with any bulb of the type specified by the lamp manufacturer, operated 
at the bulb's design voltage. A lamp that contains a sealed-in bulb 
shall meet these requirements with the bulb operated at the bulb's 
design voltage.
    S5.1.1.17  Except for a lamp having a sealed-in bulb, a lamp shall 
meet the applicable requirements of this standard when tested with a 
bulb whose filament is positioned within <plus-minus>.010 inch of the 
nominal design position specified in SAE Standard J573d, Lamp Bulbs and 
Sealed Units, December 1968, or specified by the bulb manufacturer.
    S5.1.1.18  A backup lamp is not required to meet the minimum 
photometric values at each test point specified in Table I of SAE 
Standard J593c, Backup Lamps, February 1968, if the sum of the 
candlepower measured at the test points within each group listed in 
Figure 2 is not less than the group totals specified in that figure.
    S5.1.1.19  Each variable load turn signal flasher shall comply with 
voltage drop and durability requirements of SAE Standard J590b, Turn 
Signal Flashers, October 1965 with the maximum design load connected, 
and shall comply with starting time, flash rate, and percent current 
``on'' time requirements of J590b both with the minimum and with the 
maximum design load connected.
    S5.1.1.20  The lowest voltage drop for turn signal flashers and 
hazard warning signal flashers measured between the input and load 
terminals shall not exceed 0.8 volt.
    S5.1.1.21  A motor-driven cycle whose speed attainable in 1 mile is 
30 mph or less need not be equipped with turn signal lamps.
    S5.1.1.22  A motor-driven cycle whose speed attainable in 1 mile is 
30 mph or less may be equipped with a stop lamp whose effective 
projected luminous lens area is not less than 3\1/2\ square inches and 
whose photometric output for the groups of test points specified in 
Figure 1 is at least one-half of the minimum values set forth in that 
figure.
    S5.1.1.23-24   [Reserved]
    S5.1.1.25  Each turn signal lamp on a motorcycle manufactured on and 
after January 1, 1973, shall have an effective projected luminous area 
of not less than 3\1/2\ square inches.
    S5.1.1.26  On a motor vehicle whose overall width is less than 80 
inches:
    (a) The functional lighted lens area of a single compartment stop 
lamp, and a single compartment rear turn signal lamp, shall be not less 
than 50 square centimeters.
    (b) If a multiple compartment lamp or multiple lamps are used to 
meet the photometric requirements for stop lamps and rear turn signal 
lamps, the functional lighted lens area of each compartment or lamp 
shall be at least 22 square centimeters, provided the combined area is 
at least 50 square centimeters.
    S5.1.1.27 (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, 
each passenger car manufactured on or after September 1, 1985, and each 
multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, and bus, whose overall width is 
less than 80 inches, whose GVWR is 10,000 pounds or less, manufactured 
on or after September 1, 1993, shall be equipped with a high-mounted 
stop lamp which:
 
[[Page 230]]
 
    (1) Shall have an effective projected luminous area not less than 
4\1/2\ square inches.
    (2) Shall have a signal visible to the rear through a horizontal 
angle from 45 degrees to the left to 45 degrees to the right of the 
longitudinal axis of the vehicle.
    (3) Shall have the minimum photometric values in the amount and 
location listed in Figure 10.
    (4) Need not meet the requirements of paragraphs 3.1.6 Moisture 
Test, 3.1.7 Dust Test, and 3.1.8 Corrosion Test of SAE Recommended 
Practice J186a, Supplemental High-Mounted Stop and Rear Turn Signal 
Lamps, September 1977, if it is mounted inside the vehicle.
    (5) Shall provide access for convenient replacement of the bulb 
without the use of special tools.
    (b) Each multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck and bus whose overall 
width is less than 80 inches, whose GVWR is 10,000 pounds or less, whose 
vertical centerline, when the vehicle is viewed from the rear, is not 
located on a fixed body panel but separates one or two movable body 
sections, such as doors, which lacks sufficient space to install a 
single high-mounted stop lamp on the centerline above such body 
sections, and which is manufactured on or after September 1, 1993, shall 
have two high-mounted stop lamps which:
    (1) Are identical in size and shape and have an effective projected 
luminous area not less than 2\1/4\ inches each.
    (2) Together have a signal to the rear visible as specified in 
paragraph (a)(2) of this S5.1.1.27.
    (3) Together have the minimum photometric values specified in 
paragraph (a)(3) of this S5.1.1.27.
    (4) Shall provide access for convenient replacement of the bulbs 
without special tools.
    S5.1.1.28 A multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, or bus, whose 
overall width is less than 80 inches, and whose GVWR is 10,000 pounds or 
less, that is manufactured between September 1, 1992 and September 1, 
1993, may be equipped with a high-mounted stop lamp or, in the case of 
vehicles subject to S5.1.1.27(b), two high-mounted stop lamps, that 
conform to S5.1.1.27 and S5.3.1.8.
    S5.1.1.29  A trailer equipped with a conspicuity treatment in 
conformance with paragraph S5.7 of this standard need not be equipped 
with the reflex reflectors required by Table I of this standard if the 
conspicuity material is placed at the locations of the reflex reflectors 
required by Table I.
    S5.1.2  Plastic materials used for optical parts such as lenses and 
reflectors shall conform to SAE Recommended Practice J576 JUL91, except 
that:
    (a) Plastic lenses (other than those incorporating reflex 
reflectors) used for inner lenses or those covered by another material 
and not exposed directly to sunlight shall meet the requirements of 
paragraphs 3.3 and 4.2 of SAE J576 JUL91 when covered by the outer lens 
or other material;
    (b) After the outdoor exposure test, the haze and loss of surface 
luster of plastic materials (other than those incorporating reflex 
reflectors) used for outer lenses shall not be greater than 30 percent 
haze as measured by ASTM D 1003-92, Haze and Luminous Transmittance of 
Transparent Plastic;
    (c) After the outdoor exposure test, plastic materials used for 
reflex reflectors and for lenses used in front of reflex reflectors 
shall not show surface deterioration, crazing, dimensional changes, 
color bleeding, delamination, loss of surface luster, or haze that 
exceeds 7 percent as measured under ASTM D 1003-92.
    (d) The thickness of the test specimens specified in paragraph 3.2.2 
of SAE J576 JUL91 may vary by as much as <plus-minus>0.25 mm.
    (e) After exposure to the heat test as specified in subparagraph (f) 
of this paragraph, and after cooling to room ambient temperature, a test 
specimen shall show no change in shape and general appearance 
discernable to the naked eye when compared with an unexposed specimen. 
The trichromatic coefficients of the samples shall conform to the 
requirements of SAE J578c, Color Specification for Electric Signal 
Lighting Devices, February 1977.
    (f) Two samples of each thickness of each plastic material are used 
in the heat test. Each sample is supported at the bottom, with at least 
51 mm. of the sample above the support, in the vertical position in such 
a manner
 
[[Page 231]]
 
that, on each side, the minimum uninterrupted area of exposed surface is 
not less than 3225 sq. mm. The samples are placed for two hours in a 
circulating air oven at 79 <plus-minus> 3 degrees C.
    (g) All outdoor exposure tests shall be 3 years in duration, whether 
the material is exposed or protected. Accelerated weathering procedures 
are not permitted.
    S5.1.3  No additional lamp, reflective device or other motor vehicle 
equipment shall be installed that impairs the effectiveness of lighting 
equipment required by this standard.
    S5.1.4  Each school bus shall be equipped with a system of either:
    (a) Four red signal lamps designed to conform to SAE Standard J887, 
School Bus Red Signal Lamps, July 1964, and installed in accordance with 
that standard; or
    (b) Four red signal lamps designed to conform to SAE Standard J887, 
School Bus Red Signal Lamps, July 1964, and four amber signal lamps 
designed to conform to that standard, except for their color, and except 
that their candlepower shall be at least 2\1/2\ times that specified for 
red signal lamps. Both red and amber lamps shall be installed in 
accordance with SAE Standard J887, except that:
    (i) Each amber signal lamp shall be located near each red signal 
lamp, at the same level, but closer to the vertical centerline of the 
bus; and
    (ii) The system shall be wired so that the amber signal lamps are 
activated only by manual or foot operation, and if activated, are 
automatically deactivated and the red signal lamps automatically 
activated when the bus entrance door is opened.
    S5.1.5  The color in all lamps, reflective devices, and associated 
equipment to which this standard applies shall comply with SAE Standard 
J578c, Color Specification for Electric Signal Lighting Devices, 
February 1977.
    S5.2  Other requirements.
    S5.2.1  The words ``it is recommended that,'' ``recommendations,'' 
or ``should be'' appearing in any SAE Standard or Recommended Practice 
referenced or subreferenced in this standard shall be read as setting 
forth mandatory requirements, except that the aiming pads on the lens 
face and the black area surrounding the signal lamp recommended in SAE 
Standard J887, School Bus Red Signal Lamps, July 1964, are not required.
    S5.2.2  The words ``Type 1 (5\3/4\"),'' ``Type 2 (5\3/4\"),'' ``Type 
2 (7"),'' ``Type 1A,'' ``Type 2A,'' and ``Type 2B'' appearing in any SAE 
Standard or Recommended Practice referenced or subreferenced in this 
standard shall also be read as setting forth requirements respectively 
for the following types of headlamps: 1C1, 2C1, 2D1, 1A1, 2A1, and 2B1.
    S5.3  Location of required equipment.
    S5.3.1  Except as provided in succeeding paragraphs of S5.3.1, and 
paragraphs S5.7 and S7, each lamp, reflective device, and item of 
associated equipment shall be securely mounted on a rigid part of the 
vehicle other than glazing that is not designed to be removed except for 
repair, in accordance with the requirements of Table I and Table III, as 
applicable, and in the location specified in Table II (multipurpose 
passenger vehicles, trucks, trailers, and buses 80 or more inches in 
overall width) or Table IV (all passenger cars, and motorcycles, and 
multipurpose passenger vehicles, truck, trailers and buses less than 80 
inches in overall width), as applicable.
    S5.3.1.1  Except as provided in S5.3.1.1.1, each lamp and reflective 
device shall be located so that it meets the visibility requirements 
specified in any applicable SAE Standard or Recommended Practice. In 
addition, no part of the vehicle shall prevent a parking lamp, taillamp, 
stop lamp, turn signal lamp, or backup lamp from meeting its photometric 
output at any applicable group of test points specified in Figures 1c 
and 2, or prevent any other lamp from meeting the photometric output at 
any test point specified in any applicable SAE Standard or Recommended 
Practice. However, if motor vehicle equipment (e.g., mirrors, snow 
plows, wrecker booms, backhoes, and winches) prevents compliance with 
this paragraph by any required lamp or reflective devices, an auxiliary 
lamp or device meeting the requirements of this paragraph shall be 
provided.
    S5.3.1.1.1  Clearance lamps may be located at a location other than 
on the front and rear if necessary to indicate
 
[[Page 232]]
 
the overall width of a vehicle, or for protection from damage during 
normal operation of the vehicle, and at such a location they need not 
meet the photometric output at any test point that is 45 degrees 
inboard.
    S5.3.1.2  On a truck tractor, the red rear reflex reflectors may be 
mounted on the back of the cab, at a minimum height not less than 4 
inches above the height of the rear tires.
    S5.3.1.3  On a trailer, the amber front side reflex reflectors and 
amber front side marker lamps may be located as far forward as 
practicable exclusive of the trailer tongue.
    S5.3.1.4  When the rear identification lamps are mounted at the 
extreme height of a vehicle, rear clearance lamps need not meet the 
requirement of Table II that they be located as close as practicable to 
the top of the vehicle.
    S5.3.1.5  The center of the lens referred to in SAE Standard J593c, 
Backup Lamps, February 1968, is the optical center.
    S5.3.1.6  On a truck tractor, clearance lamps mounted on the cab may 
be located to indicate the width of the cab, rather than the overall 
width of the vehicle.
    S5.3.1.7  On a motor vehicle on which the front turn signal lamp is 
less than 100 mm from the lighted edge of a lower beam headlamp, as 
measured from the optical center of the turn signal lamp, the multiplier 
applied to obtain the required minimum luminous intensities shall be 
2.5.
    S5.3.1.8 (a) Each high-mounted stop lamp installed in or on a 
vehicle subject to S5.1.1.27(a) shall be located as follows:
    (1) With its center at any place on the vertical centerline of the 
vehicle, including the glazing, as the vehicle is viewed from the rear.
    (2) If the lamp is mounted below the rear window, no portion of the 
lens shall be lower than 6 inches below the rear window on convertibles, 
or 3 inches on other passenger cars.
    (3) If the lamp is mounted inside the vehicle, means shall be 
provided to minimize reflections from the light of the lamp upon the 
rear window glazing that might be visible to the driver when viewed 
directly, or indirectly in the rearview mirror.
    (b) The high-mounted stop lamps installed in or on a vehicle subject 
to S5.1.1.27(b) shall be located at the same height, with one vertical 
edge of each lamp on the vertical edge of the body section nearest the 
vertical centerline.
    S5.4  Equipment combinations. Two or more lamps, reflective devices, 
or items of associated equipment may be combined if the requirements for 
each lamp, reflective device, and item of associated equipment are met, 
with the following exceptions:
    (a) No high-mounted stop lamp shall be combined with any other lamp 
or reflective device, other than with a cargo lamp.
    (b) No high-mounted stop lamp shall be combined optically, as 
defined by SAE Information Report J387 Terminology--Motor Vehicle 
Lighting NOV87, with any cargo lamp.
    (c) No clearance lamp shall be combined optically, as defined by SAE 
Information Report J387 Terminology--Motor Vehicle Lighting NOV87, with 
any taillamp.
    S5.5  Special wiring requirements.
    S.5.5.1  Each vehicle shall have a means of switching between lower 
and upper beams that conforms to SAE Recommended Practice J564a Headlamp 
Beam Switching, April 1964 or to SAE Recommended Practice J565b, Semi-
Automatic Headlamp Beam Switching Devices, February 1969. Except as 
provided in S5.5.8, the lower and upper beams shall not be energized 
simultaneously except momentarily for temporary signalling purposes or 
during switching between beams.
    S5.5.2  Each vehicle shall have a means for indicating to the driver 
when the upper beams of the headlamps are on that conforms to SAE 
Recommended Practice J564a, April 1964, except that the signal color 
need not be red.
    S5.5.3 The taillamps on each vehicle shall be activated when the 
headlamps are activated in a steady-burning state, but need not be 
activated if the headlamps are activated at less than full intensity as 
permitted by paragraph S5.5.11(a).
    S5.5.4  The stop lamps on each vehicle shall be activated upon 
application of the service brakes. The high-mounted stop lamp on each 
vehicle shall be
 
[[Page 233]]
 
activated only upon application of the service brakes.
    S5.5.5  The vehicular hazard warning signal operating unit on each 
vehicle shall operate independently of the ignition or equivalent 
switch, and when activated, shall cause to flash simultaneously 
sufficient turn signal lamps to meet, as a minimum, the turn signal lamp 
photometric requirements of this standard.
    S5.5.6  Each vehicle equipped with a turn signal operating unit 
shall also have an illuminated pilot indicator. Failure of one or more 
turn signal lamps to operate shall be indicated in accordance with SAE 
Standard J588e, Turn Signal Lamps, September 1970, except when a 
variable-load turn signal flasher is used on a truck, bus, or 
multipurpose passenger vehicle 80 or more inches in overall width, on a 
truck that is capable of accommodating a slide-in camper, or on any 
vehicle equipped to tow trailers.
    S5.5.7  On each passenger car and motorcycle, and on each 
multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, and bus of less than 80 inches 
overall width:
    (a) When the parking lamps are activated, the taillamps, license 
plate lamps, and side marker lamps shall also be activated; and
    (b) When the headlamps are activated in a steady-burning state, the 
tail lamps, parking lamps, license plate lamps and side marker lamps 
shall also be activated.
    S5.5.8  On a motor vehicle equipped with a headlighting system 
designed to conform to the photometric requirements of Figure 15-1 or 
Figure 15-2, the lamps marked ``L'' or ``LF'' may be wired to remain 
permanently activated when the lamps marked ``U'' or ``UF'' are 
activated. On a motor vehicle equipped with an Integral Beam 
headlighting system meeting the photometric requirements of paragraph 
S7.4(a)(1)(ii), the lower beam headlamps shall be wired to remain 
permanently activated when the upper beam headlamps are activated. On a 
motor vehicle equipped with a headlighting system designed to conform to 
the requirements of Figure 17-1 or Figure 17-2, a lower beam light 
source may be wired to remain activated when an upper beam light source 
is activated if the lower beam light source contributes to compliance of 
the headlighting system with the upper beam requirements of Figure 17-1 
or Figure 17-2.
    S5.5.9 Except as provided in section S5.5.8, the wiring harness or 
connector assembly of each headlamp system shall be designed so that 
only those light sources intended for meeting lower beam photometrics 
are energized when the beam selector switch is in the lower beam 
position, and that only those light sources intended for meeting upper 
beam photometrics are energized when the beam selector switch is in the 
upper beam position.
    S5.5.10  The wiring requirements for lighting equipment in use are:
    (a) Turn signal lamps, hazard warning signal lamps, and school bus 
warning lamps shall be wired to flash;
    (b) Headlamps and side marker lamps may be wired to flash for 
signaling purposes;
    (c) A motorcycle headlamp may be wired to allow either its upper 
beam or its lower beam, but not both, to modulate from a higher 
intensity to a lower intensity in accordance with section S5.6;
    (d) All other lamps shall be wired to be steady-burning.
    S5.5.11(a) Any pair of lamps on the front of a passenger car, 
multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, or bus, whether or not required 
by this standard, other than parking lamps or fog lamps, may be wired to 
be automatically activated, as determined by the manufacturer of the 
vehicle, in a steady burning state as daytime running lamps (DRLs) and 
to be automatically deactivated when the headlamp control is in any 
``on'' position, and as otherwise determined by the manufacturer of the 
vehicle, provided that each such lamp:
    (1) Has a luminous intensity not less than 500 candela at test point 
H-V, nor more than 3,000 candela at any location in the beam, when 
tested in accordance with Section S11 of this standard, unless it is:
    (i) A lower beam headlamp intended to operate as a DRL at full 
voltage, or at a voltage lower than used to operate it as a lower beam 
headlamp; or
 
[[Page 234]]
 
    (ii) An upper beam headlamp intended to operate as a DRL, whose 
luminous intensity at test point H-V is not more than 7,000 candela, and 
which is mounted not higher than 864 mm above the road surface as 
measured from the center of the lamp with the vehicle at curb weight;
    (2) Is permanently marked ``DRL'' on its lens in letters not less 
than 3 mm high, unless it is optically combined with a headlamp;
    (3) Is designed to provide the same color as the other lamp in the 
pair, and that is one of the following colors as defined in SAE Standard 
J578 MAY88: White, white to yellow, white to selective yellow, selective 
yellow, or yellow;
    (4) If not optically combined with a turn signal lamp, is located so 
that the distance from its lighted edge to the optical center of the 
nearest turn signal lamp is not less than 100 mm, unless:
    (i) The luminous intensity of the DRL is not more than 2,600 candela 
at any location in the beam and the turn signal meets the requirements 
of S5.3.1.7; or
    (ii) (For a passenger car, multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, or 
bus that is manufactured before October 1, 1995, and which uses an upper 
beam headlamp as a DRL as specified in paragraph S5.5.11(a)(1)(ii)) the 
luminous intensity of the DRL is greater than 2,600 candela at any 
location in the beam and the turn signal lamp meets the requirements of 
S5.3.1.7; or
    (iii) The DRL is optically combined with a lower beam headlamp and 
the turn signal lamp meets the requirements of S5.3.1.7; or
    (iv) The DRL is deactivated when the turn signal or hazard warning 
signal lamp is activated.
    (5) If optically combined with a turn signal lamp, is automatically 
deactivated as a DRL when the turn signal lamp or hazard warning lamp is 
activated, and automatically reactivated as a DRL when the turn signal 
lamp or hazard warning lamp is deactivated.
    (b) Any pair of lamps that are not required by this standard and are 
not optically combined with any lamps that are required by this 
standard, and which are used as DRLs to fulfill the specifications of 
S5.5.11(a), shall be mounted at the same height, which shall be not more 
than 1.067 m above the road surface measured from the center of the lamp 
on the vehicle at curb weight, and shall be symmetrically disposed about 
the vertical centerline of the vehicle.
    S5.6  [Reserved]
    S5.7  Conspicuity Systems. Each trailer of 80 or more inches overall 
width, and with a GVWR over 10,000 lbs., manufactured on or after 
December 1, 1993, except a trailer designed exclusively for living or 
office use, and each truck tractor manufactured on or after July 1, 
1997, shall be equipped with either retroreflective sheeting that meets 
the requirements of S5.7.1, reflex reflectors that meet the requirements 
of S5.7.2, or a combination of retroreflective sheeting and reflex 
reflectors that meet the requirement of S5.7.3.
    S5.7.1  Retroreflective sheeting. Each trailer or truck tractor to 
which S5.7 applies that does not conform to S5.7.2 or S5.7.3 shall be 
equipped with retroreflective sheeting that conforms to the requirements 
specified in S5.7.1.1 through S5.7.1.5.
    S5.7.1.1  Construction. Retroreflective sheeting shall consist of a 
smooth, flat, transparent exterior film with retroreflective elements 
embedded or suspended beneath the film so as to form a non-exposed 
retroreflective optical system.
    S5.7.1.2  Performance requirements. Retroreflective sheeting shall 
meet the requirements of ASTM D 4956-90, Standard Specification for 
Retroreflective Sheeting for Traffic Control, for Type V Sheeting, 
except for the photometric requirements, and shall meet the minimum 
photometric performance requirements specified in Figure 29.
    S5.7.1.3  Sheeting pattern, dimensions, and relative coefficients of 
retroreflection.
    (a) Retroreflective sheeting shall be applied in a pattern of 
alternating white and red color segments to the sides and rear of each 
trailer, and to the rear of each truck tractor, and in white to the 
upper rear corners of each trailer and truck tractor, in the locations 
specified in S5.7.1.4, and Figures 30-1 through 30-4, or Figure 31, as 
appropriate.
    (b) Except for a segment that is trimmed to clear obstructions, or
 
[[Page 235]]
 
lengthened to provide red sheeting near red lamps, each white or red 
segment shall have a length of 300 mm <SUP>plus-minus</SUP> 150 mm.
    (c) Neither white nor red sheeting shall represent more than two 
thirds of the aggregate of any continuous strip marking the width of a 
trailer, or any continuous or broken strip marking its length.
    (d) Retroreflective sheeting shall have a width of not less than 50 
mm (Grade DOT-C2), 75 mm (Grade DOT-C3), or 100 mm (Grade DOT-C4).
    (e) The coefficients for retroreflection of each segment of red or 
white sheeting shall be not less than the minimum values specified in 
Figure 29 of this standard for grades DOT-C2, DOT-C3, and DOT-C4.
    S5.7.1.4 Location. (a) Retroreflective sheeting shall be applied to 
each trailer and truck tractor as specified below, but need not be 
applied to discontinuous surfaces such as outside ribs, stake post 
pickets on platform trailers, and external protruding beams, or to items 
of equipment such as door hinges and lamp bodies on trailers and body 
joints, stiffening beads, drip rails and rolled surfaces on truck 
tractors.
    (b) The edge of white sheeting shall not be located closer than 75 
mm to the edge of the luminous lens area of any red or amber lamp that 
is required by this standard.
    (c) The edge of red sheeting shall not be located closer than 75 mm 
to the edge of the luminous lens area of any amber lamp that is required 
by this standard.
    S5.7.1.4.1  Rear of trailers. Retroreflective sheeting shall be 
applied to the rear of each trailer as follows, except that Element 2 is 
not required for container chassis or for platform trailers without 
bulkheads, and Element 3 is not required for trailers without underride 
protection devices:
    (a) Element 1: A strip of sheeting, as horizontal as practicable, in 
alternating colors across the full width of the trailer, as close to the 
extreme edges as practicable, and as close as practicable to not less 
than 375 mm and not more than 1525 mm above the road surface at the 
stripe centerline with the trailer at curb weight.
    (b) Element 2: Two pairs of white strips of sheeting, each pair 
consisting of strips 300 mm long of grade DOT-C2, DOT-C3, or DOT-C4, 
applied horizontally and vertically to the right and left upper contours 
of the body, as viewed from the rear, as close to the top of the trailer 
and as far apart as practicable. If the perimeter of the body, as viewed 
from the rear, is other than rectangular, the strips may be applied 
along the perimeter, as close as practicable to the uppermost and 
outermost areas of the rear of the body on the left and right sides.
    (c) Element 3: A strip of sheeting in alternating colors across the 
full width of the horizontal member of the rear underride protection 
device. Grade DOT-C2 material not less than 38 mm wide may be used.
    S5.7.1.4.2  Side of trailers. Retroreflective sheeting shall be 
applied to each side of a trailer as follows:
    (a) A strip of sheeting, as horizontal as practicable, in 
alternating colors, originating and terminating as close to the front 
and rear as practicable, as close as practicable to not less than 375 mm 
and not more than 1525 mm above the road surface at the stripe 
centerline with the trailer at curb weight, except that at the location 
chosen the strip shall not be obscured in whole or in part by other 
motor vehicle equipment or trailer cargo. The strip need not be 
continuous as long as not less than half of the length of the trailer is 
covered and the spaces are distributed as evenly as practicable.
    (b) If necessary to clear rivet heads or other similar obstructions, 
grade DOT-C2 retroreflective sheeting may be separated into two 25 mm 
wide strips of the same length and color, separated by a space of not 
more than 25 mm, and used in place of the retroreflective sheeting that 
would otherwise be applied.
    S5.7.1.4.3 Rear of truck tractors. Retroreflective sheeting shall be 
applied to the rear of each truck tractor as follows:
    (a) Element 1: Two strips of sheeting in alternating colors, each 
not less than 600 mm long, located as close as practicable to the edges 
of the rear fenders, mudflaps, or the mudflap support brackets, to mark 
the width of the truck tractor. The strips shall be
 
[[Page 236]]
 
mounted as horizontal as practicable, in a vertical plane facing the 
rear, on the rear fenders, on the mudflap support brackets, on plates 
attached to the mudflap support brackets, or on the mudflaps. Strips on 
mudflaps shall be mounted not lower than 300 mm below the upper 
horizontal edge of the mudflap. If the vehicle is certified with 
temporary mudflap support brackets, the strips shall be mounted on the 
mudflaps or on plates transferable to permanent mudflap support 
brackets. For a truck tractor without mudflaps, the strips may be 
mounted outboard of the frame on brackets behind the rear axle or on 
brackets ahead of the rear axle and above the top of the tires at 
unladen vehicle height, or they may be mounted directly or indirectly to 
the back of the cab as close to the outer edges as practicable, above 
the top of the tires, and not more than 1525 mm above the road surface 
at unladen vehicle height. If the strips are mounted on the back of the 
cab, no more than 25 percent of their cumulative area may be obscured by 
vehicle equipment as determined in a rear orthogonal view.
    (b) Element 2: Two pairs of white strips of sheeting, each pair 
consisting of strips 300 mm long, applied as horizontally and vertically 
as practicable, to the right and left upper contours of the cab, as 
close to the top of the cab and as far apart as practicable. No more 
than 25 percent of their cumulative area may be obscured by vehicle 
equipment as determined in a rear orthogonal view. If one pair must be 
relocated to avoid obscuration by vehicle equipment, the other pair may 
be relocated in order to be mounted symmetrically. If the rear window is 
so large as to occupy all the practicable space, the material may be 
attached to the edge of the window itself.
    S5.7.1.5  Certification. The letters DOT-C2, DOT-C3, or DOT-C4, as 
appropriate, constituting a certification that the retroreflective 
sheeting conforms to the requirements of S5.7.1.2, shall appear at least 
once on the exposed surface of each white or red segment of 
retroreflective sheeting, and at least once every 300 mm on 
retroreflective sheeting that is white only. The characters shall be not 
less than 3 mm high, and shall be permanently stamped, etched, molded, 
or printed in indelible ink.
    S5.7.2  Reflex Reflectors. Each trailer or truck tractor to which 
S5.7 applies that does not conform to S5.7.1 or S5.7.3 shall be equipped 
with reflex reflectors in accordance with this section.
    S5.7.2.1  (a) Each reflex reflector shall conform to SAE Standard 
J594f, Reflex Reflectors, January 1977.
    (b) Each red reflex reflector shall also provide, at an observation 
angle of 0.2 degree, not less than 300 millicandelas/lux at any light 
entrance angle between 30 degrees left and 30 degrees right, including 
an entrance angle of 0 degree, and not less than 75 millicandelas/lux at 
any light entrance angle between 45 degrees left and 45 degrees right.
    (c) Each white reflex reflector shall also provide at an observation 
angle of 0.2 degree, not less than 1250 millicandelas/lux at any light 
entrance angle between 30 degrees left and 30 degrees right, including 
an entrance angle of 0 degree, and not less than 300 millicandelas/lux 
at any light entrance angle between 45 degrees left and 45 degrees 
right.
    (d) A white reflex reflector complying with S5.7.2.1(a) and (c) when 
tested in a horizontal orientation may be installed in all orientations 
specified for rear upper locations in S5.7.1.4.1(b) or S5.7.1.4.3(b) if, 
when tested in a vertical orientation, it provides an observation angle 
of 0.2 degree not less than 1680 millicandelas/lux at a light entrance 
angle of 0 degree, not less than 1120 millicandelas/lux at any light 
entrance angle from 10 degrees down to 10 degrees up, and not less than 
560 millicandelas/lux at any light entrance angle from 20 degrees right 
to 20 degrees left.
    S5.7.2.2  Reflex reflectors shall be installed and located as 
specified below:
    (a) In the same locations and in the same length in which 
retroreflective sheeting is required by S5.7.1.4 to be applied in 
alternating colors, reflex reflectors shall be installed in a repetitive 
pattern of two or three white reflex reflectors alternating with two or 
three red reflex reflectors, with the center of each reflector not more 
than
 
[[Page 237]]
 
100 mm from the center of each adjacent reflector.
    (b) In the same locations and in the same length in which white 
retroreflective sheeting is required by S5.7.1.4 to be installed, white 
reflex reflectors shall be installed, with the center of each white 
reflex reflector not more than 100 mm from the center of each adjacent 
reflector.
    S5.7.2.3  Certification. The exposed surface of each reflex 
reflector shall be marked with the letters DOT-C which constitutes a 
certification that the reflector conforms to all applicable requirements 
of Sec. 571.108 of this part. The certification shall be not less than 3 
mm high, and permanently stamped, etched, molded or printed in indelible 
ink.
    S5.7.3  Combination of sheeting and reflectors. Each trailer or 
truck tractor to which S5.7 applies that does not conform to S5.7.1 or 
S5.7.2, shall be equipped with retroreflective materials that meet the 
requirements of S5.7.1 except that reflex reflectors that meet the 
requirements of S5.7.2.1, and that are installed in accordance with 
S5.7.2.2, may be used instead of any corresponding element of 
retroreflective sheeting located as required by S5.7.1.4.
    S5.8  Replacement Equipment.
    S5.8.1  Except as provided below, each lamp, reflective device, or 
item of associated equipment manufactured to replace any lamp, 
reflective device, or item of associated equipment on any vehicle to 
which this standard applies, shall be designed to conform to this 
standard.
    S5.8.2  A Type C replacement headlamp designed to conform to the 
requirements of paragraph S7.3.2(a) through (d) of this standard may be 
marked ``1'' and ``2'' rather than ``1C1'' and ``2C1'' respectively. A 
Type D replacement headlamp designed to conform to S7.3.2(a) through (c) 
and S7.3.5(b) of this standard may be marked ``TOP'' or ``2'' rather 
than ``2D1''.
    S5.8.3  (a) Each stop lamp manufactured to replace a stop lamp that 
was designed to conform to SAE Standard J586b, Stop Lamps, June 1966, 
may also be designed to conform to J586b. It shall meet the photometric 
minimum candlepower requirements for Class A red turn signal lamps 
specified in SAE Standard J575d, Test for Motor Vehicle Lighting Devices 
and Components, August 1967. Each such lamp manufactured for use on a 
passenger car and on a multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, trailer or 
bus less than 80 inches in overall width shall have an effective 
projected luminous area not less than 3\1/2\ square inches. If multiple 
compartment lamps or multiple lamps are used, the effective projected 
luminous area of each compartment or lamp shall be not less than 3\1/2\ 
square inches; however, the photometric requirements may be met by a 
combination of compartments or lamps.
    (b) Each stop lamp manufactured to replace a stop lamp that was 
designed to conform to SAE Standard J586c, Stop Lamps, August 1970, may 
also be designed to conform to J586c.
    S5.8.4  (a) Each turn signal lamp manufactured to replace a turn 
signal lamp that was designed to conform to SAE Standard J588d, Turn 
Signal Lamps, June 1966, may also be designed to conform to J588d, and 
shall meet the photometric minimum candlepower requirements for Class A 
turn signal lamps specified in SAE Standard J575d, Tests for Motor 
Vehicle Lighting Devices and Components, August 1967. Each such lamp 
manufactured for use on a passenger car and on a multipurpose passenger 
vehicle, truck, trailer or bus less than 80 inches in overall width 
shall have an effective projected luminous area not less than 3\1/2\ 
square inches. If multiple compartment lamps or multiple lamps are used, 
the effective projected luminous area of each compartment or lamp shall 
be not less than 3\1/2\ square inches; however, the photometric 
requirements may be met by a combination of compartments or lamps. Each 
such lamp manufactured for use on a multipurpose passenger vehicle, 
truck, trailer or bus 80 inches or more in overall width shall have an 
effective projected luminous area not less than 12 square inches.
    (b) Each turn signal lamp manufactured to replace a turn signal lamp 
that was designed to conform to SAE Standard J588e, Turn Signal Lamps, 
September 1970, may also be designed to conform to SAE Standard J588e.
 
[[Page 238]]
 
    S5.8.5  Note 6 of Table 1 of SAE Standard J588e does not apply.
    S5.8.6. Instead of the photometric values specified in SAE Standards 
J586c and J588e, a stop lamp manufactured to replace a stop lamp 
designed to conform to SAE Standard J586c, or a turn signal lamp 
manufactured to replace a turn signal lamp designed to conform to SAE 
Standard J588e, shall meet the minimum percentage specified in Figure 1a 
of the corresponding minimum allowable value specified in Figure 1b. The 
maximum candlepower output of each such stop lamp or turn signal lamp 
shall not exceed that prescribed in Figure 1b. If the sum of the 
percentages of the minimum candlepower measured at the test points is 
not less than that specified for each group listed in Figure 1c, a stop 
lamp or turn signal lamp is not required to meet the minimum photometric 
value at each test point specified in SAE Standards J586c and J588e, 
respectively.
    S5.8.7  Note 6 of Table 1 in SAE Standard J588e, Turn Signal Lamps, 
September 1970, does not apply.
    S5.8.8  Each taillamp manufactured to replace a taillamp designed to 
conform to SAE Standard J585d, Tail Lamps, August 1970, may also be 
designed to conform to J585d.
    S5.8.9  Each turn signal lamp manufactured to replace a turn signal 
lamp (on a motorcycle) that was designed to conform to SAE Standard 
J588d, Turn Signal Lamps, June 1966, may also be designed to conform to 
J588d.
    S5.8.10  Unless otherwise specified in this standard, each lamp, 
reflective device, or item of associated equipment to which paragraph 
S5.8.1 applies may be labeled with the symbol DOT, which shall 
constitute a certification that it conforms to applicable Federal motor 
vehicle safety standards.
    S5.8.11  A replacement lens for a replaceable bulb headlamp or an 
integral beam headlamp that is not required to have a bonded lens shall 
be provided with a replacement seal in a package that includes 
instructions for the removal and replacement of the lens, the cleaning 
of the reflector, and the sealing of the replacement lens to the 
reflector assembly.
    S6.  Subreferenced SAE Standards and Recommended Practices
    S6.1  SAE Standards and Recommended Practices subreferenced by the 
SAE Standards and Recommended Practices included in Tables I and III and 
paragraphs S5.1.4 and S5.5.1 are those published in the 1970 edition of 
the SAE Handbook, except that the SAE standard referred to as ``J575'' 
is J575e, Tests for Motor Vehicle Lighting Devices and Components, 
August 1970, for stoplamps designed to conform to SAE Standards J586c, 
J586 FEB84, and J1398 MAY85; for taillamps designed to conform to SAE 
Standards J585d and J585e; for turn signal lamps designed to conform to 
SAE Standards J588e, J588 NOV84, and J1395 APR85; and for high-mounted 
stoplamps designed to conform to SAE Recommended Practice J186a. The 
reference in J585e to J256 does not apply. For headlamps other than 
motorcycle headlamps, unless otherwise specified in this standard, the 
version of SAE Standard J575 is DEC88, and the version of SAE Standard 
J602 is OCT80.The definition of ``optically combined'' in SAE 
Information Report J387 Terminology--Motor Vehicle Lighting NOV87, 
applies to that term as used in J586c and J588e.
    S6.2  Requirements of SAE Standards incorporated by reference in 
this standard, other than J576b and J576c, do not include test for 
warpage of devices with plastic lenses.
    S6.3  The term ``effective projected luminous lens area'' has the 
same meaning as the term ``functional lighted lens area'' in any SAE 
Standard or Recommended Practice incorporated by reference or by 
subreference in this standard.
    S7.  Headlighting requirements.
    S7.1  Each passenger car, multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, and 
bus manufactured on or after September 1, 1994, shall be equipped with a 
headlighting system designed to conform to the requirements of S7.3, 
S7.4, S7.5, or S7.6.
    S7.2(a)  The lens of each original and replacement equipment 
headlamp, and of each original equipment and replacement equipment beam 
contributor shall be marked with the symbol ``DOT'' either horizontally 
or vertically which shall constitute the
 
[[Page 239]]
 
certification required by 49 U.S.C. 30115.
    (b) The lens of each headlamp and of each beam contributor 
manufactured on or after December 1, 1989, to which paragraph (a) of 
this section applies shall be marked with the name and/or trademark 
registered with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office of the manufacturer 
of such headlamp or beam contributor, or its importer, or any 
manufacturer of a vehicle equipped with such headlamp or beam 
contributor. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to authorize 
the marking of any such name and/or trademark by one who is not the 
owner, unless the owner has consented to it.
    (c) Each headlamp and beam contributor to which paragraph (a) of 
this section applies shall be marked with its voltage and with its part 
or trade number.
    (d) Unless stated otherwise, a tolerance of +/- \1/4\ degree is 
permitted during photometric performance tests for any headlamp or beam 
contributor, and the test points 10U-90U shall be measured from the 
normally exposed surface of the lens face. The term `aiming plane' means 
`aiming reference plane' or an appropriate vertical plane defined by the 
manufacturer as required in S7.7.1.
    (e) Each replacement headlamp lens with seal, provided in accordance 
with S5.8.11, when installed according to the lens manufacturer's 
instructions on an integral beam or replaceable bulb headlamp, shall not 
cause the headlamp to fail to comply with any of the requirements of 
this standard. Each replacement headlamp lens shall be marked with the 
symbol ``DOT'', either horizontally or vertically, to constitute 
certification. Each replacement headlamp lens shall also be marked with 
the manufacturer and the part or trade number of the headlamp for which 
it is intended, and with the name and/or trademark of the lens 
manufacturer or importer that is registered with the U.S. Patent and 
Trademark Office. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to 
authorize the marking of any such name and/or trademark by one who is 
not the owner, unless the owner has consented to it.
    S7.3  Sealed beam headlighting system. A sealed beam headlighting 
system shall be designed to meet the requirements of one of the 
following subparagraphs of S7.3.2 through S7.3.9. In references to 
Figures in SAE J1383 APR85 for headlamp dimensional requirements, only 
those dimensions marked ``I'' for interchangeability are applicable.
    S7.3.1  The lens of each sealed beam headlamp designed to conform to 
S7.3.2 through S7.3.6 shall be marked according to paragraph 5.4.3 
through 5.4.5 of SAE Standard J1383 APR85 Performance Requirements for 
Motor Vehicle Headlamps.
    S7.3.2  Type A headlighting system. A Type A headlighting system 
consists of two Type 1A1 and two Type 2A1 headlamps and associated 
hardware, which are designed to conform to the following requirements:
    (a) SAE Standard J1383 APR85 Performance Requirements for Motor 
Vehicle Headlamps, with the following exceptions:
    (1) Paragraphs 1, 2.1.2, 2.8.2, 3, 4.1.1, 4.1.2, 4.1.3, 4.4, 4.6, 
4.8 through 4.18, 5.1.1, 5.1.3, 5.1.5, 5.1.7 through 5.1.16, 5.2.2, 
5.3.5, 5.4.1, 5.4.2, and 6 through 6.4 do not apply.
    (2) In paragraph 5.3.2, the words ``and retaining rings'' are 
omitted.
    (3) In paragraphs 4.5.2 and 5.1.6, the words ``Figure 28-1 or 28-2 
of Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 108'' are substituted for ``Table 
3.''
    (b) SAE Standard J580 DEC86 Sealed Beam Headlamp Assembly (except 
paragraphs 3, 4.1.1, 5.1.1.1, 5.1.2.3, and the second sentence of 
5.1.6); in 5.2.1, delete the words ``and retaining rings;'' the correct 
reference is SAE J1383 Figures 6, 9, 12 and 14.
    (c) After a vibration test conducted in accordance with paragraph 
S8.8, there shall be no evidence of loose or broken parts, other than 
filaments, visible without magnification.
    (d) The maximum wattage at 12.8 volts (design voltage): Single 
filament headlamp, 55 watts on the upper beam; dual filament headlamp, 
43 watts on the upper beam and 65 watts on the lower beam.
    S7.3.3  Type B headlighting system. A Type B headlighting system 
consists of two Type 2B1 headlamps and associated
 
[[Page 240]]
 
hardware, which are designed to conform to the following requirements:
    (a) The requirements of paragraph S7.3.2 (a) through (c), except 
that the words ``Figure 27-1 or Figure 27-2'' are substituted for 
``Table 3'' in paragraph S7.3.2(a)(3).
    (b) The maximum wattage at 12.8 volts (design voltage): 70 watts on 
the upper beam and 60 watts on the lower beam.
    S7.3.4  Type C headlighting system. A Type C headlighting system 
consists of two Type 1C1 and two Type 2C1 headlamps and associated 
hardware, which are designed to conform to the requirements of paragraph 
S7.3.2 (a) through (d), except that the words ``Figure 28-1 or Figure 
28-2'' are substituted for ``Table 3'' in paragraph S7.3.2(a)(3).
    S7.3.5  Type D headlighting system. (a) A Type D headlighting system 
consists of two Type 2D1 headlamps and associated hardware, which are 
designed to conform to the requirements of paragraph S7.3.2 (a) through 
(c), except that the words ``Figure 27-1 or Figure 27-1'' are 
substituted for ``Table 3'' in paragraph S7.3.2(a)(3).
    (b) The maximum wattage at 12.8 volts (design voltage): 65 watts on 
upper beam, and 55 watts on lower beam.
    S7.3.6  Type E headlighting system. (a) A Type E headlighting system 
consists of two Type 2E1 headlamps and associated hardware, which are 
designed to conform to the requirements of paragraph S7.3.2 (a) through 
(c), except that the words ``Figure 27-1 or Figure 27-1'' are 
substituted for ``Table 3'' in paragraph S7.3.2(a)(3).
    (b) The maximum wattage at 12.8 volts (design voltage): 70 watts on 
upper beam, and 60 watts on lower beam.
    S7.3.7  Type F headlighting system. A Type F headlighting system 
consists of two Type UF and two Type LF headlamps and associated 
hardware, which are designed to conform to the following requirements:
    (a) Figures 11, 12, 13, and 14 as appropriate.
    (b) The photometric requirements of Figure 15-1 or Figure 15-2 of 
this standard. A reaim tolerance of +/- \1/4\ degree is allowed for any 
test point on the Type LF lamp when tested alone, but is not allowed on 
the Type UF lamp when tested alone. For the test point 10U-90U, 
measurement shall be from the normally exposed surface of the lens face.
    (c) SAE Standard J1383 APR85 Performance Requirements for Motor 
Vehicle Headlamps, Sections 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 4.1, 4.1.4, and 5.1.4.
    (d) When tested in accordance with section (c), the mounted assembly 
(either Type UF or Type LF headlamps, respective mounting ring, aiming 
ring, and aim adjustment mechanism) shall be designed to conform to the 
requirements of Figure 15-1 or Figure 15-2 for upper or lower beams 
respectively without reaim when any conforming Type UF or LF headlamp is 
tested and replaced by another conforming headlamp of the same Type.
    (e) SAE J580 DEC86 Sealed Beam Headlamp Assembly with the following 
exceptions:
    (1) Section 2.2 Mounting Ring reads: ``the adjustable ring upon 
which the sealed beam unit is mounted and which forces the sealed beam 
unit to seat against the aiming ring when assembled into a sealed beam 
assembly.''
    (2) The definition ``2.3 Aiming Ring'' reads: ``The clamping ring 
that retains the sealed beam unit against the mounting ring, and that 
provides an interface between the unit's aiming/seating pads and the 
headlamp aimer adapter (locating plate).''
    (3) Section 4.1.1 Vibration Test does not apply.
    (4) Sections 5.1.1.1 and 5.1.2.3 do not apply.
    (5) Section 5.1.2.1 reads: ``When the headlamp assembly is tested in 
the laboratory, a minimum aiming adjustment of +/- 2.5 degrees shall be 
provided in the horizontal plane and +/- 4 degrees in the vertical 
plane.''
    (6) Section 5.1.2.2 concludes: ``* * * through an angle of +/- 2.5 
degrees and +/- 4 degrees respectively.''
    (7) Section 5.1.6 is retitled ``Retaining Ring/Aiming Ring Tests''. 
The phrase ``92 x 150 mm * * * 0.340 in (8.6 mm)'' is added at the end 
of the table for flange thickness. The sentence beginning ``The 
fastening means'' is deleted.
    (8) Figures 2, 3, and 4 do not apply, and the reference to them in 
section 4.5
 
[[Page 241]]
 
is replaced by ``Figure 16, Deflectometer, of Federal Motor Vehicle 
Safety Standard No. 108.''
    (f) A lens for a Type F headlamp incorporating an upper beam shall 
be labeled ``UF.'' A lens for a Type F headlamp incorporating a lower 
beam shall be labeled ``LF''. The face of letters, numbers, or other 
symbols molded on the surface of the lens shall not be raised more than 
0.020 in (0.5 mm), and shall be placed no closer to the geometric center 
of the lens than 1.375 in. (35 mm). The marking shall be molded in the 
lens and shall be not less than \1/4\ in. (6.35 mm) in size.
    (g) The maximum wattage at 12.8 volts (design voltage): 70 watts on 
the upper beam and 60 watts on the lower beam.
    (h) Type F headlamps may be mounted on common or parallel seating 
and aiming planes to permit simultaneous aiming of both headlamps 
provided that when tested with any conforming Type UF and LF headlamps 
according to Section S10:
    (1) The assembly (consisting of the Type UF and LF headlamps, 
mounting rings, the aiming/seating rings, and aim adjustment mechanism) 
shall be designed to conform to the test points of Figure 15-1 or Figure 
15-2.
    (2) There shall be no provision for adjustment between the common or 
parallel aiming and seating planes of the two lamps.
    (i) After a vibration test conducted in accordance with paragraph 
S8.8, the Type F system shall show no evidence of loose or broken parts, 
other than filaments, visible without magnification.
    S7.3.8  Type G headlighting system. A Type G headlamp system 
consists of two Type 1G1 headlamps and two Type 2G1 headlamps each of 
which is designed to conform to the following requirements:
    (a) Figures 18 and 21.
    (b) SAE Standard J1383 APR85 Performance Requirements for Motor 
Vehicle Headlamps (except paragraphs 1, 2.1.2, 2.8.2,3, 4.1.1, 4.1.2, 
4.1.3, 4.4, 4.6, 4.8 through 4.18, 5.1.1, 5.1.3, 5.1.5 through 5.1.16, 
5.2.2, 5.3.5 through 6.4). In paragraph 5.3.2 the words ``and retaining 
rings'' are omitted. In paragraph 4.5.2, the words ``either Figure 28-1, 
or Figure 28-2'' are substituted for ``Table 3''.
    (c) SAE Standard J580 DEC86 Sealed Beam Headlamp Assembly, with the 
following exceptions:
    (1) Sections 2.2, 2.3, 4.1.1, 5.1.1.1, 5.1.2.3, 5.1.6, and 5.2.1.
    (2) Section 4.5 reads: ``Torque Deflection Test. The headlamp 
assembly to be tested shall be mounted in the designed vehicle position 
and set at nominal aim (0.0). A special adapter (Figure 22) for the 
deflectometer (Figure 16) shall be clamped onto the headlamp assembly. A 
torque of 20 in.-lbs (2.25 N-m) shall be applied to the headlamp 
assembly through the deflectometer, and a reading on the thumb wheel 
shall be taken. The torque shall be removed and a second reading on the 
thumb wheel shall be taken.''
    (d) After a vibration test conducted in accordance with paragraph 
S8.8, there shall be no evidence of loose or broken parts, other than 
filaments, visible without magnification.
    (e) The maximum wattage at 12.8 volts (design voltage) for the 1G1 
and 2G1 upper beam is 55 watts and 43 watts respectively; for the 2G1 
lower beam, 65 watts.
    (f) A lens for a Type G headlamp incorporating only part of an upper 
beam shall be labeled ``1G1.'' A lens for a Type G headlamp 
incorporating both part of an upper beam and a lower beam shall be 
labeled ``2G1.'' The face of letters, numbers, or other symbols molded 
on the surface of the lens shall not be raised more than 0.020 in. (0.5 
mm.), and shall be placed no closer to the geometric center of the lens 
than 1.375 in. (35 mm). The marking shall be molded in the lens and 
shall be not less than \1/4\ in. (6.35 mm) in size.
    S7.3.9  Type H headlighting system. A Type H headlamp system 
consisting of two Type 2H1 headlamps and associated hardware, which are 
designed to conform to the following requirements:
    (a) Paragraphs S7.3.8 (a) through (d) except that in paragraph 
S7.3.8(b), the words ``Figure 27-1 or Figure 27-2'' are substituted for 
``Table 3.''
    (b) The maximum wattage at 12.8 volts (design voltage): 70 watts on 
the upper beam and 60 watts on the lower beam.
 
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    (c) A lens for a Type H headlamp incorporating both an upper beam 
and a lower beam shall be labeled ``2H1.'' The face of letters, numbers, 
or other symbols molded on the surface of the lens shall not be raised 
more than 0.020 in. (0.5 mm), and shall be placed no closer to the 
geometric center of the lens than 1.375 in. (35 mm). The marking shall 
be molded in the lens and shall be not less than \1/4\ in. (6.35 mm) in 
size.
    S7.4  Integral Beam Headlighting System. An integral beam 
headlighting system shall be designed to conform to the following 
requirements:
    (a) The system shall provide in total not more than two upper beams 
and two lower beams of the performance described in one of the 
following:
    (1) In a four-headlamp system, each upper beam headlamp and each 
lower beam headlamp shall be designed to conform to the photometrics of 
one of the following:
    (i) Figure 15-1 or Figure 15-2; or
    (ii) Figure 15-1 or Figure 15-2, except that the upper beam test 
value at 2.5 D-V and 2.5D-12R and 12L, shall apply to the lower beam 
headlamp and not to the upper beam headlamp, and the upper beam test 
point value at 1.5D-9R and 9L shall be 1000; or
    (iii) Figure 28-1 or Figure 28-2.
    (2) In a two-headlamp system, each headlamp shall be designed to 
conform to the photometrics of one of the following:
    (i) Figure 17-1 or Figure 17-2; or
    (ii) Figure 27-1 or Figure 27-2.
    (3) In a system in which there is more than one beam contributor 
providing a lower beam, and/or more than one beam contributor providing 
an upper beam, each beam contributor in the system shall be designed to 
meet only the photometric performance requirements of Figure 15-1 or 
Figure 15-2 based upon the following mathematical expression: conforming 
test point value = 2 (Figure 15-1 or Figure 15-2 test point value)/total 
number of lower or upper beam contributors for the vehicle, as 
appropriate. The system shall be designed to use the Vehicle Headlamp 
Aiming Device (VHAD) as specified in paragraph S7.8.5.2.
    (b) The lower and upper beams shall be provided only as follows 
where each headlamp contains two light sources:
    (1) The lower beam shall be provided either by the most outboard 
light source (or the uppermost if arranged vertically), or by all light 
sources.
    (2) The upper beam shall be provided either by the most inboard 
light source (or the lowermost if arranged vertically), or by all light 
sources.
    (c) The lower and upper beams shall be provided only as follows 
where each headlamp contains a single light source:
    (1) The lower beam shall be provided by the most outboard headlamps 
(or the uppermost if arranged vertically), and the lens of each such 
headlamp shall be permanently marked with the letter ``L.''
    (2) The upper beam shall be provided by the most inboard headlamps 
(or lowermost if arranged vertically), and the lens of each such 
headlamp shall be permanently marked with the letter ``U.''
    (d) A headlamp or beam contributor designed to meet paragraphs 
(a)(1) or (a)(3) of this section and S7.8.5.1 may be mounted in an 
assembly to permit simultaneous aiming of the beam(s) contributors, 
provided that with any complying contributor the assembly complete with 
all lamps meets the appropriate photometric requirements when tested in 
accordance with S10.
    (e) Each integral beam headlamp system shall be designed to conform 
to the applicable photometric performance requirements in paragraph (a) 
of this section when tested in accordance with sections 4.1 and 4.1.4 of 
SAE Standard J1383 APR85 with any headlamps intended for use in such 
system. The term ``aiming plane'' means ``aiming reference plane,'' or 
an appropriate vertical plane defined by the manufacturer as required in 
paragraph S7.8.1.
    (f) The system shall be aimable in accordance with the requirements 
of paragraph S7.8. A system that incorporates any headlamp or beam 
contributor that does not have a VHAD as an integral and indivisible 
part of the headlamp or beam contributor shall be designed so that the 
appropriate photometrics are met when any correctly aimed and 
photometrically conforming headlamp or beam contributor
 
[[Page 243]]
 
is removed from its mounting and aiming mechanism, and is replaced 
without reaim by any conforming headlamp or beam contributor of the same 
type.
    (g) A headlamp with a glass lens need not meet the abrasion 
resistance test (S8.2). A headlamp with a nonreplaceable glass lens need 
not meet the chemical resistance test (S8.3). A headlamp with a glass 
lens and a non-plastic reflector need not meet the internal heat test of 
paragraph S8.6.2. A headlamp of sealed design as verified in paragraph 
S8.9 (sealing) need not meet the corrosion (S8.4), dust (S8.5), or 
humidity (S8.7) tests; however, the headlamp shall meet the requirements 
of paragraphs 4.1, 4.1.2, 4.4 and 5.1.4 for corrosion and connector of 
SAE Standard J580 DEC86 Sealed Beam Headlamp Assembly. An integral beam 
headlamp may incorporate light sources that are replaceable and are used 
for purposes other than headlighting.
    (h) When tested according to any of the procedures indicated in 
subparagraphs (1) through (7) each headlamp or beam contributor shall 
meet the appropriate requirement:
    (1) After an abrasion test conducted in accordance with paragraph 
S8.2, the headlamp shall meet the photometric requirements applicable to 
the headlamp system under test.
    (2) After the chemical resistance tests of paragraphs S8.3 and 
S8.10.1, the headlamp shall have no surface deterioration, coating 
delamination, fractures, deterioration of bonding or sealing materials, 
color bleeding or color pickup visible without magnification, and the 
headlamp shall meet the photometric requirements applicable to the 
headlamp system under test.
    (3) After a corrosion test conducted in accordance with paragraph 
S8.4, there shall be no evidence of external or internal corrosion or 
rust visible without magnification. After a corrosion test conducted in 
accordance with paragraph S8.10.2, there shall be no evidence of 
corrosion or rust visible without magnification on any part of the 
headlamp reflector that receives light from a headlamp light source, on 
any metal light or heat shield assembly, or on a metal reflector of any 
other lamp not sealed from the headlamp reflector. Loss of adhesion of 
any applied coating shall not occur more than 0.l25 in. (3.2 mm) from 
any sharp edge on the inside or outside. Corrosion may occur on 
terminals only if the current produced during the test of paragraph 
S8.4(c) is not less than 9.7 amperes.
    (4) After a dust test conducted in accordance with paragraph S8.5, 
the headlamp shall meet the photometric requirements applicable to the 
headlamp system under test.
    (5) The headlamp shall first meet the requirements of subparagraph 
(i) and then those of subparagraph (ii).
    (i) After a temperature cycle test conducted in accordance with 
paragraph S8.6.1, the headlamp shall show no evidence of delamination, 
fractures, entry of moisture or deterioration of bonding material, color 
bleeding, warpage or deformation visible without magnification or lens 
warpage greater than .118 in. (3 mm) when measured parallel to the 
optical axis at the point of intersection of the axis of each light 
source with the exterior surface of the lens, and it shall meet the 
photometric requirements applicable to the headlamp system under test.
    (ii) After an internal heat test conducted in accordance with 
paragraph S8.6.2, there shall be no lens warpage greater than .118 in. 
(3 mm) when measured parallel to the optical axis at the point of 
intersection of the axis of each light source with the exterior surface 
of the lens, and it shall meet the photometric requirements applicable 
to the headlamp system under test.
    (6) After a humidity test conducted in accordance with paragraph 
S8.7, the inside of the headlamp shall show no evidence of delamination 
or moisture, fogging or condensation visible without magnification.
    (7) After a vibration test conducted in accordance with paragraph 
S8.8, there shall be no evidence of loose or broken parts, other than 
filaments, visible without magnification.
    (i) An integral beam headlamp may incorporate replaceable light 
sources that are used for purposes other than headlighting.
    S7.5  Replaceable bulb headlamp system. Each replaceable bulb 
headlamp system shall be designed to conform to the following 
requirements:
 
[[Page 244]]
 
    (a) The system shall provide only two lower beams and two upper 
beams and shall incorporate not more than two replaceable light sources 
in each headlamp.
    (b) The photometrics as specified in subparagraphs (c) through (e) 
of this paragraph (depicted in Figure 26), using any light source of the 
Type intended for use in such system.
    (c) The test requirements of sections 4.1, 4.1.4, and performance 
requirements of section 5.1.4 of SAE J1383 APR85, using the photometric 
requirements specified in subparagraphs (d) and (e) of this paragraph.
    (d) For a headlamp equipped with dual filament replaceable light 
sources, the following requirements apply:
    (1) Headlamps designed to conform to the external aiming 
requirements of S7.8.5.1 shall have no mechanism that allows adjustment 
of an individual light source, or, if there are two light sources, 
independent adjustments of each reflector.
    (2) The lower and upper beams of a headlamp system consisting of two 
lamps, each containing either one or two replaceable light sources, 
shall be provided as follows:
    (i) The lower beam shall be provided in one of the following ways:
    (A) By the outboard light source (or upper one if arranged 
vertically) designed to conform to:
    (1) The lower beam requirements of Figure 27-1 or Figure 27-2, or 
Figure 17-1 or Figure 17-2, if the light sources in the headlamp system 
are any combination of dual filament replaceable light sources other 
than Type HB2; or
    (2) The lower beam requirements of Figure 17-1 or Figure17-2 if the 
light sources are Type HB2, or any dual filament replaceable light 
sources that include Type HB2; or
    (B) By both light sources in the headlamp, designed to conform to 
the lower beam requirements specified above.
    (ii) The upper beam shall be provided in one of the following ways:
    (A) By the inboard light source (or the lower one if arranged 
vertically) designed to conform to:
    (1) The upper beam requirements of Figure 27-1 or Figure 27-2, or 
Figure 17-1 or Figure 17-2 if the light sources in the headlamp system 
are any combination of dual filament replaceable light sources that 
include Type HB2, or
    (2) The upper beam requirements of figure 17-1 or Figure 17-2 if the 
light sources are type HB2, or any combination of replaceable light 
sources that include Type HB2; or
    (B) By both light sources in the headlamp, designed to conform to 
the upper beam requirements specified above.
    (3) The lower and upper beams of a headlamp system consisting of 
four lamps, each containing a single replaceable light source, shall be 
provided as follows:
    (i) The lower beam shall be provided by the outboard lamp (or the 
upper one if arranged vertically), designed to conform to:
    (A) The lower beam requirements of Figure 27-1 or Figure 27-2, or 
Figure 15-1 or Figure 15-2 if the light sources in the headlamp system 
are any combination of dual filament light sources other than Type HB2; 
or
    (B) The lower beam requirements of Figure 15-1 or Figure 15-2 if the 
light sources are Type HB2, or dual filament light sources other than 
Type HB1 and HB5. The lens of each such headlamp shall be marked with 
the letter ``L''.
    (ii) The upper beam shall be provided by the inboard lamp (or the 
lower one if arranged vertically), designed to conform to:
    (A) The upper beam requirements of Figure 27-1 or Figure 27-2, of 
Figure 15-1 or Figure 15-2 if the light sources in the headlamp system 
are any combination of dual filament light sources other than Type HB2; 
or
    (B) The upper beam requirements of Figure 15-1 or Figure 15-2 if the 
light sources are Type HB2, or dual filament light sources other tha 
Type HB1 and Type HB5. The lens of each such headlamp shall be marked 
with the letter ``u''.
    (e) The following requirements apply to a headlamp system equipped 
with any combination of replaceable light sources except those specified 
in paragraph (d) of this section:
    (1) Headlamps designed to conform to the external aim requirements 
of S7.8.5.1 shall have no mechanism that allows adjustment of an 
individual
 
[[Page 245]]
 
light source, or, if there are two replaceable light sources, 
independent adjustment of each reflector.
    (2) The lower and upper beams of a headlamp system consisting of two 
lamps, each containing a combination of two replaceable light sources 
(other than those combinations specified in subparagraph (d) of this 
paragraph) shall be provided only as follows:
    (i) The lower beam shall be provided in one of the following ways:
    (A) By the outboard light source (or the uppermost if arranged 
vertically) designed to conform to the lower beam requirements of Figure 
17-1 or Figure 17-2; or
    (B) By both light sources, designed to conform to the lower beam 
requirements of Figure 17-1 or Figure 17-2.
    (ii) The upper beam shall be provided in one of the following ways:
    (A) By the inboard light source (or the lower one if arranged 
vertically) designed to conform to the upper beam requirements of Figure 
17-1 or Figure 17-2; or
    (B) By both light sources, designed to conform to the upper beam 
requirements of Figure 17-1 or Figure 17-2.
    (3) The lower and upper beams of a headlamp system consisting of 
four lamps, using any combination of replaceable light sources except 
those specified in subparagraph (d) of this paragraph, each lamp 
containing only a single replaceable light source, shall be provided 
only as follows:
    (i) The lower beam shall be produced by the outboard lamp (or upper 
one if arranged vertically), designed to conform to the lower beam 
requirements of Figure 15-1 or Figure 15-2. The lens of each headlamp 
shall be permanently marked with the letter ``L''.
    (ii) The upper beam shall be produced by the inboard lamp (or lower 
one of arranged vertically), designed to conform to the upper beam 
requirements of Figure 15-1 or Figure 15-2. The lens of each headlamp 
shall be permanently marked with the letter ``U''.
    (f) Each lens reflector unit manufactured as replacement equipment 
shall be designed to conform to the requirements of subparagraphs (d) 
and (e) of this paragraph when any replaceable light source appropriate 
for such unit is inserted in it.
    (g) The lens of each replaceable bulb headlamp shall bear permanent 
marking in front of each replaceable light source with which it is 
equipped that states the HB Type, if the light source is designed to 
conform to subparagraphs (a) through (e) of paragraph S7.7, or the bulb 
marking/ designation provided in compliance with Section VIII of 
appendix A of part 564, if the light source is designed to conform to 
subparagraph (g) of paragraph S.7.7 No marking need be provided if the 
only replaceable light source in the headlamp is Type HB1.
    (h) The system shall be aimable in accordance with paragraph S7.8.
    (i) Each headlamp shall meet the requirements of paragraphs S7.4(g) 
and (h), except that the sentence in paragraph (g) to verify sealing 
according to section S8.9 Sealing does not apply.
    (j) A replaceable bulb headlighting system may incorporate 
replaceable light sources that are used for purposes other than 
headlighting.
    S7.6  Combination Headlighting System. A combination headlighting 
system shall be comprised of either two headlamps designed to conform to 
the requirements of S7.6.2, or any combination of four headlamps 
designed to conform to the requirements of S7.3.7, S7.4, or S7.5 of this 
standard.
    S7.6.1  A combination headlighting system shall provide in total not 
more than two upper beams and two lower beams. When installed on a motor 
vehicle, the headlamps (or parts thereof) that provide the lower beam 
shall be of the same type, and provide a symmetrical effective projected 
luminous lens area when illuminated.
    S7.6.2  In a combination headlighting system consisting of two 
headlamps, each headlamp shall be designed to conform to Figure 17-1 or 
Figure 17-2 and shall be a combination of two different headlamps chosen 
from the following types: a Type F headlamp, an integral beam headlamp, 
and a replaceable bulb headlamp.
    S7.6.2.1  That part of the headlamp which contains an integral beam 
headlamp, or beam contributors used in place of a single headlamp, shall 
be designed to conform to the requirements of S7.4 (c) through (h) of 
this standard.
 
[[Page 246]]
 
    S7.6.2.2  That part of the headlamp which contains a replaceable 
bulb headlamp shall be designed to conform to the requirements of S7.5 
of this standard.
    S7.6.3  In a combination headlighting system consisting of four 
headlamps, each headlamp shall be designed to conform to Figure 15-1 or 
Figure 15-2, or if an integral beam headlamp in which there is more than 
one beam contributor, designed to conform to Figure 15-1 or Figure 15-2 
in the manner required by S7.4(a)(3) of this standard.
    S7.7  Replaceable light sources. Each replaceable light source shall 
be designed to conform to the dimensions and electrical specifications 
furnished with respect to it pursuant to part 564 of this chapter, and 
shall conform to the following requirements:
    (a) If other than an HB Type, the light source shall be marked with 
the bulb marking designation specified for it in compliance with 
Appendix A or Appendix B of part 564 of this chapter. The base of each 
HB Type shall be marked with its HB Type designation. Each replaceable 
light source shall also be marked with the symbol DOT and with a name or 
trademark in accordance with paragraph S7.2.
    (b) The measurement of maximum power and luminous flux that is 
submitted in compliance with Appendix A or Appendix B of part 564 of 
this chapter shall be made in accordance with this paragraph. The 
filament or discharge arc shall be seasoned before measurement of 
either. Measurement shall be made with the direct current test voltage 
regulated within one quarter of one percent. The test voltage shall be 
12.8v. The measurement of luminous flux shall be in accordance with the 
Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, LM-45, IES Approved 
Method for Electrical and Photometric Measurements of General Service 
Incandescent Filament Lamps (April 1980); shall be made with the black 
cap installed on Type HB1, Type HB2, Type HB4, and Type HB5, and on any 
other replaceable light source so designed; and shall be made with the 
electrical conductor and light source base shrouded with an opaque white 
cover, except for the portion normally located within the interior of 
the lamp housing. The measurement of luminous flux for the Types HB3 and 
HB4 shall be made with the base covered with a white cover as shown in 
the drawings for Types HB3 and HB4 filed in Docket No. NHTSA 98-3397. 
(The white cover is used to eliminate the likelihood of incorrect lumen 
measurement that will occur should the reflectance of the light source 
base and electrical connector be low).
    (c) The capsule, lead wires and/or terminals, and seal on each Type 
HB1, Type HB3, Type HB4, and Type HB5 light source, and on any other 
replaceable light source which uses a seal, shall be installed in a 
pressure chamber as shown in Figure 25 so as to provide an airtight 
seal. The diameter of the aperture in Figure 25 on a replaceable light 
source (other than an HB Type) shall be that dimension furnished for 
such light source in compliance with Appendix A or Appendix B of part 
564 of this chapter. An airtight seal exists when no air bubbles appear 
on the low pressure (connector) side after the light source has been 
immersed in water for one minute while inserted in a cylindrical 
aperture specified for the light source, and subjected to an air 
pressure of 70kPa (10 P.S.I.G.) on the glass capsule side.
    (d) The measurement of maximum power and luminous flux that is 
submitted in compliance with section VII of Appendix A of part 564 of 
this chapter, or section IV of Appendix B of part 564 of this chapter, 
shall be made with the direct current test voltage regulated within one 
quarter of one percent. The test voltage shall be 12.8v. The measurement 
of luminous flux shall be in accordance with the Illuminating 
Engineering Society of North America, LM 45; IES Approved Method for 
Electrical and Photometric Measurements of General Service Incandescent 
Filament Lamps (April 1980). The filament of a replaceable light source 
shall be seasoned before such measurement. The white covers are used to 
eliminate the likelihood of incorrect lumens measurement that will occur 
should the reflectance of the light source base and electrical connector 
be low.
    (1) For a light source with a resistive element type filament, 
seasoning of
 
[[Page 247]]
 
the light source shall be made in accordance with section 2.9 of SAE 
Standard J1383 APR85 Performance Requirements for Motor Vehicle 
Headlamps. The measurement of luminous flux shall be made with the black 
cap installed on Type HB1, Type HB2, Type HB4, and Type HB5 light 
sources, and on any other replaceable light source so designed, and 
shall be made with the electrical conductor and light source base 
shrouded with an opaque white colored cover, except for the portion 
normally located within the interior of the lamp housing. The 
measurement of luminous flux for Type HB3 and Type HB4 shall be made 
with the base covered with the white cover shown in the drawings for 
Types HB3 and HB4 filed in Docket No. NHTSA 98-3397.
    (2) For a light source using excited gas mixtures as a filament or 
discharge arc, seasoning of the light source system, including any 
ballast required for its operation, shall be made in accordance with 
section 4.0 of SAE Recommended Practice J2009 FEB93 Discharge Forward 
Lighting Systems. With the test voltage applied to the ballast input 
terminals, the measurement of luminous flux shall be made with the black 
cap installed, if so designed, and shall be made with an opaque white 
colored cover, except for the portion normally located within the 
interior of the lamp housing.
    (e) If a ballast is required for operation, each ballast shall bear 
the following permanent markings:
    (1) Name or logo of ballast manufacturer;
    (2) Ballast part number or unique identification;
    (3) Part number or other unique identification of the light source 
for which the ballast is designed;
    (4) Rated laboratory life of the light source/ballast combination, 
if the information for the light source has been filed in Appendix B of 
part 564 of this chapter;
    (5) A warning that ballast output voltage presents the potential for 
severe electrical shock that could lead to permanent injury or death;
    (6) Ballast output power in watts and output voltage in rms volts AC 
or DC; and
    (7) The symbol `DOT'.''
    (f) For light sources that use excited gas mixtures as a filament or 
discharge arc, the ``rated laboratory life'' shall be determined in 
accordance with sections 4.3 and 4.9 of SAE Recommended Practice J2009 
FEB93 Forward Discharge Lighting Systems.
    (g) After the force deflection test conducted in accordance with S9, 
the permanent deflection of the glass envelope shall not exceed 0.13 mm 
in the direction of the applied force.
    S7.8  Aimability Performance Requirements.
    S7.8.1  (a) Each headlamp or beam contributor that is not visually/
optically aimable in accordance with S7.8.5.3 of this standard shall be 
equipped with fiducial marks, aiming pads, or similar references of 
sufficient detail and accuracy, for determination of an appropriate 
vehicle plane to be used with the photometric procedures of SAE J1383 
APR85 for correct alignment with the photometer axis when being tested 
for photometric compliance, and to serve for the aiming reference when 
the headlamp or beam contributor is installed on a motor vehicle. The 
fiducial marks, aiming pads, or similar references are protrusions, 
bubble vials, holes, indentations, ridges, scribed lines, or other 
readily identifiable marks established and described by the vehicle or 
headlamp manufacturer.
    (b) Each motor vehicle manufactured on and after September 1, 1998, 
shall be equipped with headlamps or beam contributors which have a mark 
or markings that are visible from the front of the headlamp when 
installed on the vehicle to identify the optical axis of the headlamp to 
assure proper horizontal and vertical alignment of the aiming screen or 
optical aiming equipment. The manufacturer is free to choose the design 
of the mark or markings. The mark or markings may be on the interior or 
exterior of the lens or indicated by a mark or central structure on the 
interior or exterior of the headlamp.
    (c) Each headlamp that is visually/optically aimable in accordance 
with S7.8.5.3 of this standard shall be marked in accordance with 
S7.8.5.3(f).
    S7.8.2  Except as provided in this paragraph, each headlamp shall be 
installed on a motor vehicle with a
 
[[Page 248]]
 
mounting and aiming mechanism that allows aim inspection and adjustment 
of both vertical and horizontal aim, and is accessible for those 
purposes without removal of any vehicle parts, except for protective 
covers removable without the use of tools.
    S7.8.2.1  (a) When installed on the vehicle, adjustment of one aim 
axis through its full on-vehicle range shall not cause the aim of the 
other axis to deviate more than +/- 0.76 degree.
    (b) If the performance specified in paragraph (a) of this section is 
not achievable, the requirements of S7.8.5.2(b)(3) apply, except that if 
the aiming mechanism is not a VHAD, the requirements specific to VHADs 
are not applicable, and the instruction shall be specific to the aiming 
mechanism installed.
    (c) A visually/optically aimable headlamp that has a lower beam 
shall not have a horizontal adjustment mechanism unless such mechanism 
meets the requirements of paragraph S7.8.5.2 of this standard.
    S7.8.2.2 If the headlamp is aimed by moving the reflector relative 
to the lens and headlamp housing, or vice versa, it shall:
    (a) Allow movement of the headlamp system, when tested in the 
laboratory, to be not less than the full range of pitch on the vehicle 
on which the headlamp system is installed and for the horizontal aim 
range limits of S7.8.4,
    (b) Conform with the photometrics applicable to it with the lens at 
any position relative to the reflector within the range limits as 
specified in S7.8.2.2(a),
    (c) Be exempted from the aim range limits for testing in a 
laboratory in S7.8.3, and
    (d) Be exempted from S7.8.4 if it is visually/optically aimable and 
has fixed horizontal aim.
    S7.8.3  When a headlamp system is tested in a laboratory, the range 
of its vertical aim shall not be less than +/- 4 degrees from the 
nominal correct aim position for the intended vehicle application. When 
installed on a motor vehicle, the range of vertical aim shall be not 
less than the full range of pitch of the vehicle on which the headlamp 
system is installed. The installed range of static pitch angle shall as 
a minimum be determined from unloaded vehicle weight to gross vehicle 
weight rating, and incorporate pitch angle effects from maximum trailer 
or trunk loadings, the full range of tire intermix sizes and suspensions 
recommended and/or installed by the vehicle manufacturer, and the 
anticipated effects of variable passenger loading. The vertical aim 
adjustment mechanism shall be continuously adjustable over the full 
range.
    S7.8.4  When a headlamp system is tested in a laboratory, the range 
of its horizontal aim shall be not less that +/-2.5 degrees from the 
nominal correct aim position for the intended vehicle application.
    S7.8.5  When activated in a steady-burning state, headlamps shall 
not have any styling ornament or other feature, such as a translucent 
cover or grill, in front of the lens. Headlamp wipers may be used in 
front of the lens provided that the headlamp system is designed to 
conform with all applicable photometric requirements with the wiper 
stopped in any position in front of the lens. When a headlamp system is 
installed on a motor vehicle, it shall be aimable with at least one of 
the following: An externally applied aiming device, as specified in 
S7.8.5.1; an on-vehicle headlamp aiming device installed by the vehicle 
or lamp manufacturer, as specified in S7.8.5.2; or by visual/optical 
means, as specified in S7.8.5.3.
    S7.8.5.1  External aiming. Each headlamp system that is capable of 
being mechanically aimed by externally applied headlamp aiming devices 
shall be mechanically aimable using the equipment specified in SAE 
Standard J602 OCT80 Headlamp Aiming Device for Mechanically Aimable 
Sealed Beam Headlamp Units without the removal of any ornamental trim 
rings, covers, wipers or other vehicle parts.
    (a) The aim of the headlamps in each headlamp system, other than a 
headlamp system designed to conform to section S7.3, that is designed to 
use such external aiming devices, shall not deviate more than 0.30 
degree when a downward torque of 20 lb.-in. (2.25 N-m) is removed from 
the headlamp in its design operating position. The downward force used 
to create the torque
 
[[Page 249]]
 
shall be applied parallel to the aiming reference plane, through the 
aiming pads, and displaced forward using a lever arm such that the force 
is applied on an axis that is perpendicular to the aiming reference 
plane and originates at the center of the aiming pad pattern (see 
Figures 4-1 and 4-3). For headlamps using the aiming pad locations of 
Group 1, the distance between the point of application of force and the 
aiming reference plane shall be not less than 6.625 in. (168.3 mm) plus 
the distance from the aiming reference plane to the secondary plane, if 
used (see section S7.8.5.1(d)(1)). For headlamps using the aiming pad 
locations of Group II, the distance between the point of application of 
force and the aiming reference plane shall be not less than 6.609 in. 
(167.9 mm) plus the distance from the aiming reference plane to the 
secondary plane, if used. For headlamps using the nonadjustable Headlamp 
Aiming Device Locating Plates for the 146 mm diameter, the 176 mm 
diameter, and the 92 x 150 mm sealed beam units, the distance between 
the point of application of force and the aiming plane shall, 
respectively, be not less than 6.984 in. (177.4 mm), 6.937 in. (176.2 
mm), and 7.625 in (193.7 mm). Each headlamp system that is designed to 
conform to paragraph S7.5 and that is designed to use such external 
aiming devices, and which is manufactured on or after September 1, 1990, 
shall comply with this paragraph.
    (b) When a headlamp is installed on a motor vehicle, its aim in any 
direction shall not change by more than 0.30 degree nor shall the lamp 
recede more than 0.1 in. (2.5 mm.) after being subjected to an inward 
force of 50 pounds (222 newtons) applied evenly to the lens parallel to 
the mechanical axis.
    (c) Each headlamp system mounting and aiming mechanism shall be 
subjected to a salt spray (fog) test in accordance with ASTM B117-73 
Method of Salt Spray (Fog) Testing for a period of 50 hours, consisting 
of two successive 25-hour periods of 24 hours exposure followed by 1 
hour of drying. At the end of 50 hours, the headlamp system shall be 
capable of meeting any of the applicable requirements of paragraph S7.8.
    (d) Each headlamp system which is designed to use the Headlamp 
Aiming Device Locating Plates with adjustable legs for the 100  x  165 
mm unit and the 142  x  200 mm unit, and which has adjustable length 
legs, shall meet the requirements of subparagraphs (1) and (2) below.
    (1) The lens shall have three aiming pads which meet the 
requirements of Figure 4, Dimensional Specifications for Location of 
Aiming Pads on Replaceable Bulb Headlamp Units. The aiming pads need not 
be centered at the geometric center of the lens, or on the optical axis. 
Except as provided in subparagraph (2), a whole number, which represents 
the distance in tenths of an inch (i.e. 0.3 inch=3) from the aiming 
reference plane to the respective aiming pads which are not in contact 
with that plane, shall be inscribed adjacent to each respective aiming 
pad on the lens. The height of these numbers shall be not less than .157 
inch (4 mm). If there is interference between the plane and the area of 
the lens between the aiming pads, the whole number represents the 
distance to a secondary plane. The secondary plane shall be located 
parallel to the aiming reference plane and as close to the lens as 
possible without causing interference.
    (2) If the most forward aiming pad is the lower inboard aiming pad, 
then the dimensions may be placed anywhere on the lens. The dimension 
for the outboard aiming pad (Dimension F in Figure 4) shall be followed 
by the letter ``H'' and the dimension for the center aiming pad shall be 
followed by the letter ``V.'' The dimensions shall be expressed in 
tenths of an inch.
    (e) Each headlamp may be designed to use the nonadjustable Headlamp 
Aiming Device Locating Plate for the 100 x 165 mm unit, the 142 x 200 mm 
unit, the 146 mm diameter unit, or the 178 mm diameter unit of SAE J602, 
or the 92 x 150 mm Type F unit, and incorporate lens-mounted aiming pads 
as specified for those units in Figures 10, 13, 5, or 7 respectively in 
SAE J1383 APR85, or Figure 11 of this standard for the Type F unit. If 
so designed, no additional lens marking is necessary to designate the 
type of plate or dimensions.
 
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    S7.8.5.2  On-vehicle aiming. Each headlamp system that is capable of 
being aimed by equipment installed on the vehicle shall include a 
Vehicle Headlamp Aiming Device (VHAD) that conforms to the following 
requirements:
    (a) Aim. The VHAD shall provide for headlamp aim inspection and 
adjustment in both the vertical and horizontal axes.
    (1) Vertical aim. The VHAD shall include the necessary references 
and scales relative to the horizontal plane to assure correct vertical 
aim for photometry and aiming purposes. An off-vehicle measurement of 
the angle of the plane of the ground is permitted. In addition, an equal 
number of graduations from the ``O'' position representing angular 
changes in the axis in the upward and downward directions shall be 
provided.
    (i) Each graduation shall represent a change in the vertical 
position of the mechanical axis not larger than 0.19 degree (1 in. at 25 
ft.) to provide for variations in aim at least 1.2 degrees above and 
below the horizontal, and have an accuracy relative to the zero mark of 
less than 0.1 degree.
    (ii) The VHAD shall be marked to indicate headlamp aim movement in 
the upward and downward directions.
    (iii) Each graduation shall indicate a linear movement of the scale 
indicator of not less than 0.05 in. (1.27 mm) if a direct reading analog 
indicator is used. If a remote reading indicator is provided, it shall 
represent the actual aim movement in a clear, understandable format.
    (iv) The vertical indicator shall perform through a minimum range of 
+/-1.2 degrees.
    (v) Means shall be provided in the VHAD for compensating for 
deviations in floor slope less than 1.2 degrees from the horizontal that 
would affect the correct positioning of the headlamp for vertical aim.
    (vi) The graduations shall be legible under an illumination level 
not greater than 30 foot candles, measured at the top of the graduation, 
by an observer having 20/20 vision (Snellen), and shall permit aim 
adjustment to within 0.19 degree (1 in. at 25 ft.).
    (2) Horizontal aim. The VHAD shall include references and scales 
relative to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle necessary to assure 
correct horizontal aim for photometry and aiming purposes. An ``O'' mark 
shall be used to indicate alignment of the headlamps relative to the 
longitudinal axis of the vehicle. In addition, an equal number of 
graduations from the ``O'' position representing equal angular changes 
in the axis relative to the vehicle axis shall be provided.
    (i) Each graduation shall represent a change in the horizontal 
position of the mechanical axis not greater than 0.38 degree (2 in. at 
25 ft.) to provide for variations in aim at least 0.76 degree (4 in. at 
25 ft.) to the left and right of the longitudinal axis of the vehicle, 
and shall have an accuracy relative to the zero mark of less than 0.1 
degree.
    (ii) The VHAD shall be marked to indicate headlamp aim movement in 
the left and right directions.
    (iii) The graduations shall be legible under an illumination level 
not greater than 30 foot candles, measured at the top of the graduation, 
by an observer having 20/20 vision (Snellen), and shall permit aim 
adjustment to within 0.38 degree (2 in. at 25 ft.).
    (iv) The horizontal indicator shall perform through a minimum range 
of +/-0.76 degree (4 in. at 25 ft.); however, the indicator itself shall 
be capable of recalibration over a movement of +/-2.5 degrees relative 
to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle to accommodate any adjustment 
necessary for recalibrating the indicator after vehicle repair from 
accident damage.
    (b) Aiming instructions. (1) The instructions for properly aiming 
the headlighting system using the VHAD shall be provided on a label 
permanently affixed to the vehicle adjacent to the VHAD, or in the 
vehicle operator's manual. The instructions shall advise that the 
headlighting system is properly aimed if the appropriate vertical plane 
(as defined by the vehicle manufacturer) is perpendicular to both the 
longitudinal axis of the vehicle, and a horizontal plane when the 
vehicle is on a horizontal surface, and the VHAD is set at ``O'' 
vertical and ``O'' horizontal.
 
[[Page 251]]
 
    (2) Should a remote indicator or a remote indicator and adjuster be 
provided, the instructions shall be placed in the operator's manual, and 
may also be placed on a label adjacent to the VHAD.
    (3) Should the mechanism not meet the requirements of S7.8.2.1, on 
each motor vehicle manufactured on or after September 1, 1990, a 
cautionary label shall be placed adjacent to the mechanism stating the 
caution and including either the reason for the caution or the 
corrective action necessary. Each such label shall also refer the reader 
to the vehicle operator's manual for complete instructions. Each such 
vehicle shall be equipped with an operator's manual containing the 
complete instructions appropriate for the mechanism installed.
    (c) Each headlamp equipped with a VHAD that is manufactured for use 
on motor vehicles manufactured on or after September 1, 1998, shall be 
manufactured with its calibration permanently fixed by its manufacturer. 
Calibration in this case means the process of accurately aligning the 
geometry of the VHAD devices with the beam pattern for the purposes of 
compliance with the standard.
    (d) Testing the VHAD.
    (1) The headlamp assembly (the headlamp(s), and the VHAD(s)) shall 
be mounted on a level goniometer, aligned to a photometer located not 
less than 60 ft. (18.3 m) from the VHAD assembly. The assembly shall be 
mechanically aimed using the VHAD in accordance with the manufacturer's 
instructions as provided with the vehicle on which the VHAD is intended 
to be used. A \1/4\ degree reaim is permitted in any direction at any 
test point to allow for variations in readings between laboratories. The 
test shall be conducted in accordance with the procedures of paragraphs 
4.1 and 4.1.4 of SAE J1383 APR85. Under these conditions the mounted 
headlamp assembly shall be designed to conform to the photometric 
requirements appropriate for the headlamp system under test.
    (2) When tested in accordance with subsection (1) of this section, 
with any replacement headlamp unit(s) or light sources intended for use 
in the system under test, the VHAD and headlamp system shall be designed 
to conform to the photometric performance requirements appropriate for 
the system under test.
    (3) The same VHAD and associated headlamp(s) (or headlamp assembly) 
shall be rigidly mounted in a headlamp test fixture and comply with the 
following laboratory test procedures:
    (i) Each graduation on the horizontal and vertical aim scales shall 
be checked and any variation from the correct aim shall not exceed +/- 
0.2 degree, and +/- 0.1 degree respectively.
    (ii) With the aiming plane horizontal and vertical and with the 
scale on the device set at 0, the aimer shall be adjusted before each of 
the following tests to assure that the indicators are centered at 0.
    (A) The VHAD and an unlighted headlamp assembly shall be stabilized 
at 20 +/- 5 degrees F (-7 +/- 3 degrees C) in a circulating air 
environmental test chamber. After a period of 30 minutes, when measured 
at that soak temperature, the variation from correct horizontal of 
vertical aim shall not exceed +/- 0.2 degree, and +/- 0.1 degree, 
respectively.
    (B) The VHAD, and the headlamp assembly with its highest wattage 
filament (or combination of filaments intended to be used 
simultaneously) energized at its design voltage, shall then be 
stabilized at 100 +/- 5 degrees F (38 +/- 3 degrees C) in a circulating 
air environmental test chamber. After a period of 30 minutes, when 
measured at that soak temperature, the variation from correct horizontal 
and vertical aim shall not exceed +/- 0.2 degree, and +/- 0.1 degree, 
respectively.
    (C) The VHAD and an unlighted headlamp assembly shall then be placed 
in a circulating air environmental test chamber and exposed to a 
temperature of 140 +/- 5 degrees F (60 +/- 3 degrees C) for 24 hours, 
followed by a temperature of -40 +/- 5 degrees F (-40 +/- 3 degrees C) 
for 24 hours and then permitted to return to room temperature, after 
which the VHAD and headlamp assembly shall show no damage which would 
impair its ability to perform as specified herein. The variation from 
correct horizontal or vertical aim shall not exceed +/- 0.2
 
[[Page 252]]
 
degree, and +/- 0.1 degree, respectively.
    (D) The VHAD and headlamp assembly shall then be tested according to 
the corrosion test procedure of paragraph S7.8.5.1(c).
    (E) The VHAD and headlamp assembly shall then be tested for 
photometric compliance as specified in paragraphs S7.8.5.2(c)(1) and 
(2).
    S7.8.5.3  Visual/optical aiming. Each visually/optically aimable 
headlamp shall be designed to conform to the following requirements:
    (a) Vertical aim, lower beam. Each lower beam headlamp shall have a 
cutoff in the beam pattern. It may be either on the left side or the 
right side of the optical axis, but once chosen for a particular 
headlamp system's design, the side chosen for the cutoff shall not be 
changed for any headlamps intended to be used as replacements for those 
system's headlamps.
    (1) Vertical position of cutoff. The headlamp shall be aimed 
vertically so that the cutoff is on the left side, at 0.4 degree down 
from the H-H line, or on the right side, at the H-H line.
    (2) Vertical gradient. The gradient of the cutoff measured at either 
2.5 degrees L or 2.0 degrees R shall be not less than 0.13 based on the 
procedure of S7.8.5.3, paragraph (a)(5).
    (3) Horizontal position of the cutoff. The width shall be not less 
than two degrees, with not less than two degrees of its actual width 
centered at either 2.5 degrees L, or 2.0 degrees R.
    (4) Maximum inclination of cutoff. The vertical location of the 
highest gradient at the ends of the minimum width shall be within +/-0.2 
degree of the vertical location of the maximum gradient measured at the 
appropriate vertical line (at either 2.5 degrees L for a left side 
cutoff, or 2.0 degrees R for a right side cutoff.)
    (5) Measuring the cutoff parameter. (i) The headlamp shall be 
mounted on a fixture which simulates its actual design location on any 
vehicle for which the headlamp is intended. The fixture, with the 
headlamp installed shall be attached to the goniometer table in such a 
way that the fixture alignment axes are coincident with the goniometer 
axes. The headlamp shall be energized at the specified test voltage.
    (ii) The headlamp beam pattern shall be aimed with the cutoff at the 
H-H axis. There shall be no adjustment, shimming, or modification of the 
horizontal axis of the headlamp or test fixture, unless the headlamp is 
equipped with a VHAD. In this case the VHAD shall be adjusted to zero.
    (iii) A vertical scan of the beam pattern shall be conducted for a 
headlamp with a left side gradient by aligning the goniometer on a 
vertical line at 2.5 degrees L and scanning from 1.5 degrees U to 1.5 
degrees D. For a headlamp with a right side gradient, a vertical scan of 
the beam pattern shall be conducted by aligning the goniometer on a 
vertical line at 2.0 degrees R and scanning from 1.5 degrees U to 1.5 
degrees D.
    (iv) Determine the maximum gradient within the range of the scan by 
using the formula: G = log E(a)-log E(a+0.1), where ``G'' is the 
gradient, ``E'' is illumination and ``a'' is vertical angular position. 
The maximum value of the gradient ``G'' determines the vertical angular 
location of the cutoff. Perform vertical scans at 1.0 degree L and R of 
the measurement point of the maximum gradient to determine the 
inclination.
    (b) Horizontal aim, lower beam. There shall be no adjustment of 
horizontal aim unless the headlamp is equipped with a horizontal VHAD. 
If the headlamp has a VHAD, it shall be set to zero.
    (c) Vertical aim, upper beam. (1) If the upper beam is combined in a 
headlamp with a lower beam, the vertical aim of the upper beam shall not 
be changed from the aim set using the procedures of paragraphs 
S7.8.5.3(a) and (b) used for the lower beam.
    (2) If the upper beam is not combined in a headlamp with a lower 
beam, the vertical aim of the upper beam shall be adjusted so that the 
maximum beam intensity is located on the H-H axis.
    (d) Horizontal aim, upper beam. (1) If the upper beam is combined in 
a headlamp with a lower beam, the horizontal aim of the upper beam shall 
not be changed from the aim set using the procedures of paragraphs 
S7.8.5.3 (a) and (b) used for the lower beam.
    (2) If the upper beam is not combined in a headlamp with the lower 
beam and
 
[[Page 253]]
 
has fixed horizontal aim or has a horizontal VHAD, then the headlamp 
shall be mounted on a fixture which simulates its actual design location 
on any vehicle for which the headlamp is intended. The fixture, with the 
headlamp installed shall be attached to the goniometer table in such a 
way that the fixture alignment axes are coincident with the goniometer 
axes. The headlamp shall be energized at 12.8 <SUP>plus-minus</SUP> 0.20 
mV. There shall be no adjustment, shimming, or modification of the 
horizontal axis of the headlamp or test fixture, unless the headlamp is 
equipped with a VHAD. In this case the VHAD shall be adjusted to zero.
    (3) If the upper beam is not combined in a headlamp with a lower 
beam, and it does not have a VHAD, the horizontal aim of the upper beam 
shall be adjusted so that the maximium beam intensity is located on the 
V-V axis.
    (e) Photometric Requirements and Measurement. (1) Instead of being 
designed to conform to the photometric requirements of Figures 15-1, 17-
1, 27-1 or 28-1, a visually/optically aimable headlamp shall be designed 
to conform to the requirements of Figures 15-2, 17-2, 27-2 or 28-2 when 
tested in accordance with paragraph (2) and SAE J575 DEC88, with the 
distance from the photometer to the headlamp no less than 18.3 m.
    (2) If the lower beam has a left side cutoff, reaim the headlamp 
vertically to place the maximum gradient found in paragraph S7.8.5.3 at 
0.4 degree below the H-H line. For a headlamp with a lower beam right 
side cutoff, place the maximum gradient found in paragraph S7.8.5.3 at 
the H-H line. For an upper beam, the headlamp would already be aimed at 
the end of the procedure found in paragraph S7.8.5.3. A 0.25 degree 
reaim is permitted in any direction at any test point.
    (f) Marking--(1) Headlamp optical axis mark. There shall be a mark 
or markings identifying the optical axis of the headlamp visible from 
the front of the headlamp when installed on the vehicle, to assure 
proper horizontal and vertical alignment of the aiming screen or optical 
aiming equipment with the headlamp being aimed. The manufacturer is free 
to choose the design of the mark or markings. The mark or markings may 
be on the interior or exterior of the lens or indicated by a mark or 
central structure on the interior or exterior of the headlamp.
    (2) Visual/optical aimability identification marks. (i) The lens of 
a lower beam headlamp shall be marked ``VOL'' if the headlamp is 
intended to be visually/optically aimed using the left side of the lower 
beam pattern.
    (ii) The lens of a lower beam headlamp shall be marked ``VOR'' if 
the headlamp is intended to be visually/optically aimed using the right 
side of the lower beam pattern.
    (iii) The lens of each sealed beam or integral beam headlamp shall 
be marked ``VOR'' if the headlamp is of a type that was manufactured 
before May 1, 1997, and if such headlamp type has been redesigned since 
then to be visually/optically aimable.
    (iv) The lens of a headlamp that is solely an upper beam headlamp 
and intended to be visually/optically aimed using the upper beam shall 
be marked ``VO''.
    (v) Each letter used in marking according to this paragraph shall be 
not less than 3 mm. high.
    S7.9  Motorcycles. Each motorcycle shall be equipped with a 
headlighting system designed to conform to the following requirements.
    S7.9.1  A motorcycle manufactured before September 1, 2000, may be 
equipped with--
    (a) A headlighting system designed to conform to SAE Standard J584 
Motorcycle Headlamps April 1964, or to SAE Standard J584 April 1964 with 
the photometric specifications of Figure 32 and the upper beam 
aimability specifications of paragraph S7.9.3; or
    (b) One half of any headlighting system specified in S7.1 through 
S7.6 which provides both a full upper beam and full lower beam. Where 
more than one lamp must be used, the lamps shall be mounted vertically, 
with the lower beam as high as practicable.
    S7.9.2  A motorcycle manufactured on or after September 1, 2000, 
shall be equipped with--
    (a) A headlighting system designed to conform to SAE Standard J584 
Motorcycle Headlamps April 1964 with the photometric specifications of 
Figure 32
 
[[Page 254]]
 
and the upper beam aimability specifications of paragraph S7.9.3; or
    (b) A headlighting system that conforms to S7.9.1(b).
    S7.9.3  The upper beam of a multiple beam headlamp designed to 
conform to the photometric requirements of Figure 32 shall be aimed 
photoelectrically during the photometric test in the manner prescribed 
in SAE Standard J584 OCT93 Motorcycle Headlamps.
    S7.9.4  Motorcycle headlamp modulation system.
    S7.9.4.1  A headlamp on a motorcycle may be wired to modulate either 
the upper beam or the lower beam from its maximum intensity to a lesser 
intensity, provided that:
    (a) The rate of modulation shall be 240 <plus-minus> 40 cycles per 
minute.
    (b) The headlamp shall be operated at maximum power for 50 to 70 
percent of each cycle.
    (c) The lowest intensity at any test point shall be not less than 17 
percent of the maximum intensity measured at the same point.
    (d) The modulator switch shall be wired in the power lead of the 
beam filament being modulated and not in the ground side of the circuit.
    (e) Means shall be provided so that both the lower beam and upper 
beam remain operable in the event of a modulator failure.
    (f) The system shall include a sensor mounted with the axis of its 
sensing element perpendicular to a horizontal plane. Headlamp modulation 
shall cease whenever the level of light emitted by a tungsten filament 
light operating at 3000 deg. Kelvin is either less than 270 lux (25 
foot-candles) of direct light for upward pointing sensors or less than 
60 lux (5.6 foot-candles) of reflected light for downward pointing 
sensors. The light is measured by a silicon cell type light meter that 
is located at the sensor and pointing in the same direction as the 
sensor. A Kodak Gray Card (Kodak R-27) is placed at ground level to 
simulate the road surface in testing downward pointing sensors.
    (g) When tested in accordance with the test profile shown in Figure 
9, the voltage drop across the modulator when the lamp is on at all test 
conditions for 12 volt systems and 6 volt systems shall not be greater 
than .45 volt. The modulator shall meet all the provisions of the 
standard after completion of the test profile shown in Figure 9.
    (h) Means shall be provided so that both the lower and upper beam 
function at design voltage when the headlamp control switch is in either 
the lower or upper beam position when the modulator is off.
    S7.9.4.2(a)  Each motorcycle headlamp modulator not intended as 
original equipment, or its container, shall be labeled with the maximum 
wattage, and the minimum wattage appropriate for its use. Additionally, 
each such modulator shall comply with S7.9.4.1 (a) through (g) when 
connected to a headlamp of the maximum rated power and a headlamp of the 
minimum rated power, and shall provide means so that the modulated beam 
functions at design voltage when the modulator is off.
    (b) Instructions, with a diagram, shall be provided for mounting the 
light sensor including location on the motorcycle, distance above the 
road surface, and orientation with respect to the light.
    S7.9.5  Each replaceable bulb headlamp that is designed to meet the 
photometric requirements of paragraph S7.9.1(a) or paragraph S7.9.2(a) 
and that is equipped with a light source other than a replaceable light 
source meeting the requirements of paragraph S7.7, shall have the word 
``motorcycle'' permanently marked on the lens in characters not less 
than 0.114 in. (3 mm) in height.
    S7.9.6  A headlamp system shall be installed on a motorcycle in 
accordance with the requirements of this paragraph.
    S7.9.6.1  The headlamp system shall be located on the front of the 
motorcycle.
    S7.9.6.2  (a) If the system consists of a single headlamp, it shall 
be mounted on the vertical centerline of the motorcycle. If the headlamp 
contains more than one light source, each light source shall be mounted 
on the vertical centerline with the upper beam no higher than the lower 
beam, or horizontally disposed about the vertical centerline and mounted 
at the same height. If the light sources are horizontally disposed
 
[[Page 255]]
 
about the vertical centerline, the distance between the closest edges of 
the effective projected luminous lens area in front of the light sources 
shall not be greater than 200 mm (8 in.).
    (b) If the system consists of two headlamps, each of which provides 
both an upper and lower beam, the headlamps shall be mounted either at 
the same height and symmetrically disposed about the vertical centerline 
or mounted on the vertical centerline. If the headlamps are horizontally 
disposed about the vertical centerline, the distance between the closest 
edges of their effective projected luminous lens areas shall not be 
greater than 200 mm (8 in.).
    (c) If the system consists of two headlamps, one of which provides 
an upper beam and one of which provides the lower beam, the headlamps 
shall be located on the vertical centerline with the upper beam no 
higher than the lower beam, or horizontally disposed about the vertical 
centerline and mounted at the same height. If the headlamps are 
horizontally disposed about the vertical centerline, the distance 
between the closest edges of their effective projected luminous lens 
areas shall not be greater than 200 mm (8 in.).
    S8  Tests and Procedures for Integral Beam and Replaceable Bulb 
Headlighting Systems. When tested in accordance with the following 
procedures, each integral beam headlamp shall meet the requirements of 
paragraph S7.4, and each replaceable bulb headlamp shall meet the 
requirements of paragraph S7.5. Ballasts required to operate specific 
gas mixture light sources shall be included in the tests specified in 
paragraphs S8.1 and S8.4 though S8.7.
    S8.1  Photometry. Each headlamp to which paragraph S8 applies shall 
be tested according to paragraphs 4.1 and 4.1.4 of SAE Standard J1383 
APR85 for meeting the applicable photometric requirements, after each 
test specified in paragraphs S8.2, S8.3, S8.5, S8.6.1, S8.6.2, S8.7, and 
S8.10.1 and S8.10.2, if applicable. A \1/4\ degree reaim is permitted in 
any direction at any test point.
    S8.2  Abrasion. (a) A headlamp shall be mounted in the abrasion test 
fixture in the manner indicated in Figure 5 with the lens facing upward.
    (b) An abrading pad meeting the requirements in paragraphs (c)(1) 
through (c)(4) of this section shall be cycled back and forth (1 cycle) 
for 11 cycles at 4 <plus-minus> 0.8 in. (10 cm <plus-minus> 2 cm) per 
second over at least 80 percent of the lens surface, including all the 
area between the upper and lower aiming pads, but not including lens 
trim rings and edges.
    (c)(1) The abrading pad shall be not less than 1.0 <plus-minus> .04 
in. (2.5 cm <plus-minus> .1 cm) wide, constructed of 0000 steel wool, 
and rubber cemented to a rigid base shaped to the same vertical contour 
of the lens. The ``grain'' of the pad shall be perpendicular to the 
direction of motion.
    (2) The abrading pad support shall be equal in size to the pad and 
the center of the support surface shall be within <plus-minus> .08 in. 
(<plus-minus> 2 mm) of parallel to the lens surface.
    (3) The density of the abrading pad shall be such that when the pad 
is mounted to its support and is resting unweighted on the lens, the 
base of the pad shall be no closer than .125 in. (3.2 mm) to the lens at 
its closest point.
    (4) When mounted on its support and resting on the lens of the test 
headlamp, the abrading pad shall then be weighted such that a pad 
pressure of 2.0 <plus-minus> .15 psi (14 <plus-minus> 1 KPa) exists at 
the center and perpendicular to the face of the lens.
    (d) A pivot shall be used if it is required to follow the contour of 
the lens.
    (e) Unused steel wool shall be used for each test.
    S8.3  Chemical resistance. (a) The entire exterior lens surface of 
the headlamp in the headlamp test fixture and top surface of the lens-
reflector joint shall be wiped once to the left and once to the right 
with a 6-inch square soft cotton cloth (with pressure equally applied) 
which has been saturated once in a container with 2 ounces of a test 
fluid as listed in paragraph (b). The lamp shall be wiped within 5 
seconds after removal of the cloth from the test fluid.
    (b) The test fluids are:
    (1) ASTM Reference Fuel C, which is composed of Isooctane 50% volume 
and
 
[[Page 256]]
 
Toluene 50% volume. Isooctane must conform to A2.7 in Annex 2 of the 
Motor Fuels Section of the 1985 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 
05.04, and Toluene must conform to ASTM specification D362-84, Standard 
Specification for Industrial Grade Toluene. ASTM Reference Fuel C must 
be used as specified in:
    (i) Paragraph A2.3.2 and A2.3.3 of Annex 2 to Motor Fuels, Section 1 
in the 1985 Annual Book of ASTM Standards; and
    (ii) OSHA Standard 29 CFR 1910.106--Handling Storage and Use of 
Flammable Combustible Liquids.
    (2) Tar remover (consisting by volume of 45% xylene and 55% 
petroleum base mineral spirits).
    (3) Power steering fluid (as specified by the vehicle manufacturer 
for use in the motor vehicle on which the headlamp is intended to be 
installed).
    (4) Windshield washer fluid consisting of 0.5% monoethanolamine with 
the remainder 50% concentration of methanol/distilled water by volume.
    (5) Antifreeze (50% concentration of ethylene glycol/distilled water 
by volume).
    (c) After the headlamp has been wiped with the test fluid, it shall 
be stored in its designed operating attitude for 48 hours at a 
temperature of 73  deg.F <plus-minus>7 deg. (23  deg.C <plus-minus> 
4 deg.) and a relative humidity of 30 <plus-minus> 10 percent. At the 
end of the 48-hour period, the headlamp shall be wiped clean with a soft 
dry cotton cloth and visually inspected.
    S8.4  Corrosion. (a) A connector test shall be performed on each 
filament circuit prior to the test in subparagraph (b) according to 
Figure 1 and SAE Standard J580 DEC86. The power source shall be set to 
provide 12. 8 volts and the resistance shall be set to produce 10 
amperes.
    (b) The headlamp with connector attached to the terminals, 
unfixtured and in its designed operating attitude with all drain holes, 
breathing devices or other designed openings in their normal operating 
positions, shall be subjected to a salt spray (fog) test in accordance 
with ASTM B117-73, Method of Salt Spray (Fog) Testing, for 240 hours, 
consisting of ten successive 24-hour periods. During each period, the 
headlamp shall be mounted in the middle of the chamber and exposed for 
23 hours to the salt spray. The spray shall not be activated during the 
24th hour. The bulb shall be removed from the headlamp and from the test 
chamber during the one hour of salt spray deactivation and reinserted 
for the start of the next test period, at the end of the first and last 
three 23-hour periods of salt spray exposure, and at the end of any two 
of the fourth through seventh 23-hour periods of salt-spray exposure. 
The test chamber shall be closed at all times except for a maximum of 2 
minutes which is allowed for removal or replacement of a bulb during 
each period. After the ten periods, the lens reflector unit without the 
bulb shall be immersed in deionized water for 5 minutes, then secured 
and allowed to dry by natural convection only.
    (c) Using the voltage, resistance and pretest set up of paragraph 
(a) the current in each filament circuit shall be measured after the 
test conducted in paragraph (b).
    S8.5  Dust. The headlamp, mounted on a headlamp test fixture, with 
all drain holes, breathing devices or other designed openings in their 
normal operating positions, shall be positioned within a cubical box, 
with inside measurements of 35.4 in. (900 mm) on each side or larger if 
required for adequate wall clearance, i.e., a distance of at least 5.9 
in. (150 mm) between the headlamp and any wall of the box. The box shall 
contain 9.9 lb. (4.5 kg) of fine powdered cement which conforms to the 
ASTM C150-77 specification for Portland Cement. Every 15 minutes, the 
cement shall be agitated by compressed air or fan blower(s) by 
projecting blasts of air for a two-second period in a downward direction 
so that the cement is diffused as uniformly as possible throughout the 
entire box. This test shall be continued for five hours after which the 
exterior surfaces of the headlamp shall be wiped clean.
    S8.6  Temperature and internal heat test. A headlamp with one or 
more replaceable light sources shall be tested according to paragraphs 
S8.6.1 and S8.6.2. Tests shall be made with all filaments lighted at 
design voltage that are intended to be used simultaneously in the 
headlamp and which in combination draw the highest total wattage.
 
[[Page 257]]
 
These include but are not limited to filaments used for turn signal 
lamps, fog lamps, parking lamps, and headlamp lower beams lighted with 
upper beams when the wiring harness is so connected on the vehicle. If a 
turn signal is included in the headlamp assembly, it shall be operated 
at 90 flashes a minute with a 75 <plus-minus> 2% current ``on time.'' If 
the lamp produces both the upper and lower beam, it shall be tested in 
both the upper beam mode and the lower beam mode under the conditions 
above described, except for a headlamp with a single Types HB1 or HB2 
light source.
    S8.6.1  Temperature cycle. A headlamp, mounted on a headlamp test 
fixture, shall be subjected to 10 complete consecutive cycles having the 
thermal cycle profile shown in Figure 6. During the hot cycle, the lamp, 
shall be energized commencing at point ``A'' of Figure 6 and de-
energized at point ``B.'' Separate or single test chambers may be used 
to generate the environment of Figure 6. All drain holes, breathing 
devices or other openings or vents of the headlamps shall be in their 
normal operating positions.
    S8.6.2  Internal Heat Test. (a) The headlamp lens surface that would 
normally be exposed to road dirt shall be uniformly sprayed with any 
appropriate mixture of dust and water or other materials to reduce the 
photometric output at the H-V test point of the upper beam (or the \1/
2\D-1\1/2\R test point of the lower beam as appropriate) to 25 
<plus-minus> 2% of the output originally measured in the photometric 
test conducted pursuant to paragraphs S7.4(i), or S7.5 (a) through (e), 
as applicable. A headlamp with a single Types HB1 or HB2 light source 
shall be tested on the upper beam only. Such reduction shall be 
determined under the same conditions as that of the original photometric 
measurement.
    (b) After the photometric output of the lamp has been reduced as 
specified in paragraph (a), the lamp and its mounting hardware shall be 
mounted in an environmental chamber in a manner similar to that 
indicated in Figure 7 ``Dirt/Ambient Test Setup.'' The headlamp shall be 
soaked for one hour at a temperature of 95 + 7 -0 degrees F (35 + 4 -0 
degrees C) and then the lamp shall be energized according to paragraph 
S8.6 for one hour in a still air condition, allowing the temperature to 
rise from the soak temperature.
    (c) The lamp shall be returned to a room ambient temperature of 73 + 
7 -0 degrees F (23 + 4 -0 degrees C) and a relative humidity of 30 
<plus-minus> 10% and allowed to stabilize to the room ambient 
temperature. The lens shall then be cleaned.
    S8.7 Humidity. (a) The test fixture consists of a horizontal steel 
plate to which three threaded steel or aluminum rods of \1/2\ inch 
diameter are screwed vertically behind the headlamp. The headlamp 
assembly is clamped to the vertical rods, which are behind the headlamp. 
All attachments to the headlamp assembly are made behind the lens and 
vents or openings, and are not within 2 inches laterally of a vent inlet 
or outlet.
    (b) The mounted headlamp assembly is oriented in its design 
operating position, and is placed in a controlled environment at a 
temperature of 100+7-0 degrees F (38+4-0 degrees C) with a relative 
humidity of not less than 90 percent. All drain holes, breathing 
devices, and other openings are in their normal operation positions for 
all phases of the humidity test. The headlamp shall be subjected to 24 
consecutive 3-hour test cycles. In each cycle, it shall be energized for 
1 hour at design voltage with the highest combination of filament 
wattages that are intended to be used, and then de-energized for 2 
hours. If the headlamp incorporates a turn signal, it shall flash at 90 
flashes per minute with a 75+/-2 percent current ``on-time.''
    (c) Within 3 minutes after the completion of the 24th cycle, the air 
flow test will begin. The following shall occur: the mounted assembly 
shall be removed, placed in an insulating box and covered with foam 
material so that there is no visible air space around the assembly; the 
box shall be closed, taken to the air flow test chamber, and placed 
within it. Inside the chamber, the assembly with respect to the air 
flow, shall be oriented in its design operating position. The assembly 
is positioned in the chamber so that the center of the lens is in the 
center of the
 
[[Page 258]]
 
opening of the air flow entry duct during the test. The headlamp has at 
least 3 inches clearance on all sides, and at least 4 inches to the 
entry and exit ducts at the closest points. If vent tubes are used which 
extend below the lamp body, the 3 inches are measured from the bottom of 
the vent tube or its protection. The temperature of the chamber is 
73+7-0 degrees F (23+4-0 degrees C) with a relative humidity of 30+10-0 
percent. The headlamp is not energized.
    (d) Before the test specified in paragraph (e) of this section, the 
uniformity of the air flow in the empty test chamber at a plane 4 inches 
downstream of the air entry duct shall have been measured over a 4-inch 
square grid. The uniformity of air flow at each grid point is +/-10 
percent of the average air flow specified in paragraph (e) of this 
section.
    (e) The mounted assembly in the chamber shall be exposed, for one 
hour, to an average air flow of 330+0-30 ft/min. as measured with an air 
velocity measuring probe having an accuracy of +/-3 percent in the 330 
ft/min range. The average air flow is the average of the velocity 
recorded at six points around the perimeter of the lens. The six points 
are determined as follows: At the center of the lens, construct a 
horizontal plane. The first two points are located in the plane, 1 inch 
outward from the intersection of the plane and each edge of the lens. 
Then, trisect the distance between these two points and construct 
longitudinal vertical planes at the two intermediate locations formed by 
the trisection. The four remaining points are located in the vertical 
planes, one inch above the top edge of the lens, and one inch below the 
bottom edge of the lens.
    (f) After one hour, the headlamp is removed and inspected for 
moisture.
    S8.8 Vibration. A vibration test shall be conducted in accordance 
with the procedures of SAE Standard J575e Tests for Motor Vehicle 
Lighting Devices and Components August 1970, and the following: the 
table on the adapter plate shall be of sufficient size to completely 
contain the test fixture base with no overhang. The vibration shall be 
applied in the vertical axis of the headlamp system as mounted on the 
vehicle. The filament shall not be energized.
    S8.9 Sealing. An unfixtured headlamp in its design mounting position 
shall be placed in water at a temperature of 176 +/- 5 degrees F (60 +/- 
3 degrees C) for one hour. The headlamp shall be energized in its 
highest wattage mode, with the test voltage at 12.8 +/- 0.1 V. during 
immersion. The lamp shall then be de-energized and immediately submerged 
in its design mounting position into water at 32 +5 -0 degrees F (0 +3 
-0 degrees C). The water shall be in a pressurized vessel, and the 
pressure shall be increased to 10 psi (70 kPa), upon placing the lamp in 
the water. The lamp shall remain in the pressurized vessel for a period 
of thirty minutes. This entire procedure shall be repeated for four 
cycles. Then the lamp shall be inspected for any signs of water on its 
interior. During the high temperature portion of the cycles, the lamp 
shall be observed for signs of air escaping from its interior. If any 
water occurs on the interior or air escapes, the lamp is not a sealed 
lamp.
    S8.10  Chemical and corrosion resistance of reflectors of 
replaceable lens headlamps.
    S8.10.1  Chemical resistance. (a) With the headlamp in the headlamp 
test fixture and the lens removed, the entire surface of the reflector 
that receives light from a headlamp light source shall be wiped once to 
the left and once to the right with a 6-inch square soft cotton cloth 
(with pressure equally applied) which has been saturated once in a 
container with 2 ounces of one of the test fluids listed in paragraph 
(b). The lamp shall be wiped within 5 seconds after removal of the cloth 
from the test fluid.
    (b) The test fluids are:
    (1) Tar remover (consisting by volume of 45% xylene and 55% 
petroleum base mineral spirits);
    (2) Mineral spirits; or
    (3) Fluids other than water contained in the manufacturer's 
instructions for cleaning the reflector.
    (c) After the headlamp has been wiped with the test fluid, it shall 
be stored in its designed operating attitude for 48 hours at a 
temperature of 73  deg.F <plus-minus> 7 deg. (23  deg.C <plus-minus> 
4 deg.) and a relative humidity of 30 <plus-minus> 10 percent. At the 
end of the
 
[[Page 259]]
 
48-hour period, the headlamp shall be wiped clean with a soft dry cotton 
cloth and visually inspected.
    S8.10.2  Corrosion. (a) The headlamp with the lens removed, 
unfixtured and in its designed operating attitude with all drain holes, 
breathing devices or other designed openings in their normal operating 
positions, shall be subjected to a salt spray (fog) test in accordance 
with ASTM B117-73, Method of Salt Spray (Fog) Testing, for 24 hours, 
while mounted in the middle of the chamber.
    (b) Afterwards, the headlamp shall be stored in its designed 
operating attitude for 48 hours at a temperature of 73  deg.F 
<plus-minus> 7 deg. (23  deg.C <plus-minus> 4 deg.) and a relative 
humidity of 30 <plus-minus> 10 percent and allowed to dry by natural 
convection only. At the end of the 48-hour period, the reflector shall 
be cleaned according to the instructions supplied with the headlamp 
manufacturer's replacement lens, and inspected. The lens and seal shall 
then be attached according to these instructions and the headlamp tested 
for photometric performance.
    S9. Deflection test for replaceable light sources. With the light 
source rigidly mounted in a fixture in a manner indicated in Figure 8, a 
force 4.0 <plus-minus> 0.1 pounds (17.8 <plus-minus> 0.4N) is applied at 
a distance ``A'' from the reference plane perpendicular to the 
longitudinal axis of the glass capsule and parallel to the smallest 
dimension of the pressed glass capsule seal. The force shall be applied 
(using a rod with a hard rubber tip with a minimum spherical radius of 
.039 in (1 mm)) radially to the surface of the glass capsule in four 
locations in a plane parallel to the reference plane and spaced at a 
distance ``A'' from that plane. These force applications shall be spaced 
90 degrees apart starting at the point perpendicular to the smallest 
dimension of the pressed seal of the glass capsule. The bulb deflection 
shall be measured at the glass capsule surface at 180 degrees opposite 
to the force application. Distance ``A'' for a replaceable light source 
other than an HB Type shall be the dimension provided in accordance with 
Appendix A of part 564 of this chapter, section I.A.1 if the light 
source has a lower beam filament, or as specified in section I.B.1 if 
the light source has only an upper beam filament.
    S10 Simultaneous Aim Photometry Tests--(a) Type F Headlamp Systems. 
The assembly shall be located on a goniometer placed not less than 60 
feet (18.3m) from the photometer. The LF unit shall be aimed 
mechanically by centering the unit on the photometer axis and by 
aligning the aiming plane of the lens perpendicular to the photometer 
axis. Then the assembly shall be moved in a plane parallel to the 
established aiming plane of the LF headlamp until the UF headlamp is 
centered on the photometer axis. Photometry measurements of the UF 
photometry unit shall be completed using the aiming plane so 
established, and the procedures of section 4.1 and 4.1.4 Standard J1383 
APR85, and Figure 15-1 or Figure 15-2. A reaim tolerance of 
<plus-minus>\1/4\ degree is permitted in any direction at any test 
point.
    (b) Integral Beam Headlamp Systems. The assembly used for 
simultaneously aiming more than one integral beam headlamp shall be 
placed on a test fixture on a goniometer located not less than 60 feet 
(18.3 m.) from the photometer. The assembly shall be aimed by centering 
the geometric center of the lower beam lens(es) on the photometer axis 
and by aligning the photometer axis to be perpendicular to the aiming 
reference plane or appropriate vertical plane defined by the 
manufacturer of any lower beam contributor. Photometric compliance of 
the lower beam shall be determined with all lower beam contributors 
illuminated and in accordance with sections 4.1 and 4.1.6 of SAE 
Standard J1383 APR85, and Figure 15-1 or Figure 15-2. The assembly shall 
then be moved in a plane parallel to the established aiming plane of the 
lower beam until the assembly is located with the geometric center of 
the upper lens(es) on the photometer axis. Photometric compliance for 
upper beam shall now be determined using the figure and procedure 
specified for the lower beam. During photometric testing, a \1/4\ degree 
reaim is permitted in any direction at any test point.
    S11. Photometric Test. A lamp that is wired in accordance with 
paragraph S5.5.11 of this standard, shall be tested
 
[[Page 260]]
 
for compliance with S5.5.11(a)(1) in accordance with the test method 
specified for photometric testing in SAE Standard J575 DEC88 when a test 
voltage of 12.8V +/-20 mV is applied to the input terminals of the lamp 
switch module or voltage-reducing equipment, whichever is closer to the 
electrical source on the vehicle. The test distance from the lamp to the 
photometer shall be not less than 18.3 m, if the lamp is optically 
combined with a headlamp, or is a separate lamp, and not less than 3 m, 
if the lamp is optically combined with a lamp, other than a headlamp, 
that is required by this standard.
    S12. Headlamp Concealment Devices.
    S12.1  While the headlamp is illuminated, its fully opened headlamp 
concealment device shall remain fully opened should any loss of power to 
or within the headlamp concealment device occur.
    S12.2  Whenever any malfunction occurs in a component that controls 
or conducts power for the actuation of the concealment device, each 
closed headlamp concealment device shall be capable of being fully 
opened by a means not requiring the use of any tools. Thereafter, the 
headlamp concealment device must remain fully opened until intentionally 
closed.
    S12.3  Except for malfunctions covered by S12.2, each headlamp 
concealment device shall be capable of being fully opened and the 
headlamps illuminated by actuation of a single switch, lever, or similar 
mechanism, including a mechanism that is automatically actuated by a 
change in ambient light conditions.
    S12.4  Each headlamp concealment device shall be installed so that 
the headlamp may be mounted, aimed, and adjusted without removing any 
component of the device, other than components of the headlamp assembly.
    S12.5  Except for cases of malfunction covered by S12.2, each 
headlamp concealment device shall, within an ambient temperature range 
of -20  deg.F. to +120  deg.F., be capable of being fully opened in not 
more than 3 seconds after the actuation of a driver-operated control.
    S12.6 As an alternative to complying with the requirements of S12.1 
through S12.5, a vehicle with headlamps incorporating VHAD or visual/
optical aiming in accordance with paragraph S7 may meet the requirements 
for Concealable lamps in paragraph 5.14 of the following version of the 
Economic Commission for Europe Regulation 48 ``Uniform Provisions 
Concerning the Approval of Vehicles With Regard to the Installation of 
Lighting and Light-Signalling Devices'': E/ECE/324-E/ECE/TRANS/505, 
Rev.1/Add.47/Rev.1/Corr.2, 26 February 1996 (page 17), in the English 
language version. A copy of paragraph 5.14 may be reviewed at the DOT 
Docket Management Facility, U.S. Department of Transportation, Room PL-
01, 400 Seventh Street, SW., Washington, D.C. 20590-0001. Copies of E/
ECE/324-E/ECE/TRANS/505, Rev.1/Add.47/Rev.1/Corr.2, 26 February 1996 may 
be obtained from the ECE internet site:
 
www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29regs.html or by writing to:
 
    United Nations, Conference Services Division, Distribution and Sales 
Section, Office C.115-1, Palais des Nations, CH-1211, Geneva 10, 
Switzerland.
    S12.7  Manufacturers of vehicles with headlamps incorporating VHAD 
or visual/optical aiming shall elect to certify to S12.1 through S12.5 
or to S12.6 prior to, or at the time of certification of the vehicle, 
pursuant to 49 CFR part 567. The selection is irrevocable.
 
                   Figures and Tables to Sec. 571.108
 
                       Figure 1a--Required Percentages of Minimum Candlepower of Figure 1b
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                            Turn
            Test points (deg)                                              signal     Stop     Parking    Tail
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10U, 10D.................................  5L, 5R.......................        20        20        20        20
5U, 5D...................................  20L, 20R.....................      12.5      12.5        10        15
                                           10L, 10R.....................      37.5      37.5        20        40
                                           V............................      87.5      87.5        70        90
H........................................  10L, 10R.....................        50        50        35        40
                                           5L, 5R.......................       100       100        90       100
 
[[Page 261]]
 
 
                                           V............................       100       100       100       100
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note--Minimum design candlepower requirements are determined by multiplying the percentages given in this Figure
  by the minimum allowable candlepower values in Figure 1b. The resulting values shall be truncated after one
  digit to the right of the decimal point.
 
 
       Figure 1b--Minimum and Maximum Allowable Candlepower Values
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                Lighted sections
                 Lamp                 ----------------------------------
                                            1          2           3
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Stop.................................     80/300      95/360    110/420
Tail \1\.............................      2/18       3.5/20    5.0/25
Parking \2\..........................    4.0/125
Red turn signal......................     80/300      95/360    110/420
Yellow turn signal rear..............    130/750     150/900    175/1050
Yellow turn signal front.............    200/-        240-      275/-
Yellow turn signal front \3\.........    500/-       600/-      685/-
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Maximum at H or above.
\2\ The maximum candlepower value of 125 applies to all test points at H
  or above. The maximum allowable candlepower value below H is 250.
\3\ Values apply when the optical axis (filament center) of the front
  turn signal is at a spacing less than 4 in. (10 cm.) from the lighted
  edge of the headlamp unit providing the lower beam, or from the
  lighted edge of any additional lamp installed as original equipment
  and which supplements the lower beam.
 
 
    Figure 1c--Sum of the Percentages of Grouped Minimum Candlepower
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                 Turn
    Group and test points       signal      Stop     Parking      Tail
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1  10U-5L, 5U-20L, 5D-20L,           65         65         60         70
 10D-5L.....................
2  5U-10L, H-10L, 5D-10L....        125        125         75        120
3  H-5L, 5U-V, H-V, 5D-V, H-        475        475        420        480
 5R.........................
4  5U-10R, H-10R, 5D-10R....        125        125         75        120
5  10U-5R, 5U-20R, 5D-20R,           65         65         60         70
 10D-5R.....................
------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 
   Figure 2--Minimum Luminous Intensity Requirements for Backup Lamps
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                               Total for
                                                                group,
 Group                   Test point, degrees                    candela
                                                               (see note
                                                                  1)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
 1 \1\  45L-5U, 45L-H, 45L-5D...............................          45
 2 \1\  30L-H, 30L-5D.......................................          50
    3   10L-10U, 10L-5U, V-10U, V-5U, 10R-10U, 10R-5U.......         100
    4   10L-H, 10L-5D, V-H, V-5D, 10R-H, 10R-5D.............         360
 5 \1\  30R-H, 30R-5D.......................................          50
 6 \1\  45R-5U, 45R-H, 45R-5D...............................          45
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ When 2 lamps of the same or symmetrically opposite design are used,
  the reading along the vertical axis and the averages of the readings
  for the same angles left and right of vertical for 1 lamp shall be
  used to determine compliance with the requirements. If 2 lamps of
  differing designs are used, they shall be tested individually and the
  values added to determine that the combined units meet twice the
  candela requirements.
When only 1 backup lamp is used on the vehicle, it shall be tested to
  twice the candela requirements.
 
      
 
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                     Figure 10--Photometric Requirements for Center High-Mounted Stop Lamps
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                       Minimum
                                                  Minimum     Zones (test points within zones, see    total for
            Individual test points               intensity                   note 2)                     zone
                                                 (candela)                                            (canadela)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10U-10L.......................................            8  Zone I (5U-V, H-5L, H-V, H-5R, 5D-V)..          125
-V............................................           16
-10R..........................................            8
5U-10L........................................           16  Zone II (5U-5R, 5U-10R, H-10R, 5D-10R,           98
                                                              5D-5R).
-5L...........................................           25
-V............................................           25
-5R...........................................           25
 
[[Page 271]]
 
 
-10R..........................................           16
5D-10L........................................           16  Zone III (5U-5L, 5U-10L, H-10L, 5D-              98
                                                              10L, 5D-5L).
-5L...........................................           25
-V............................................           25
-5R...........................................           25
-10R..........................................           16
H-10L.........................................           16  Zone IV (10U-10L, 10U-V, 10U-10R).....           32
-5L...........................................           25
-V............................................           25
-5R...........................................           25
-10R..........................................           16
See Note 1....................................      \1\ 160
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note 1: The listed maximum shall not occur over any area larger than that generated by a \1/4\ degree radius
  within an solid cone angle within the rectangle bounded by test points 10U-10L, 10U-10R, 5D-10L, and 5D-10R.
Note 2: The measured values at each test point shall not be less than 60% of the value listed.
\1\ Maximum intensity (Candela).
 
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        Figure 29--Minimum Photometric Performance of Retroflective Sheeting in Candela/Lux/Square Meter
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                        Observation angle
                                                          --------------------------------------------
                      Entrance angle                            0.2 Degree            0.5 Degree         Grade
                                                          --------------------------------------------
                                                             White       Red       White       Red
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-4 degree................................................        250         60         65         15     DOT-C2
30 degree................................................        250         60         65         15     DOT-C2
45 degree................................................         60         15         15          4     DOT-C2
-4 degree................................................        165         40         43         10     DOT-C3
30 degree................................................        165         40         43         10     DOT-C3
45 degree................................................         40         10         10          3     DOT-C3
-4 degree................................................        125         30         33          8     DOT-C4
30 degree................................................        125         30         33          8     DOT-C4
45 degree................................................         30          8          8          2     DOT-C4
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 
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                 Figure 32--Motorcycle and Motor-Driven Cycle Headlamp Photometric Requirements
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                 Test Points (deg.)                                                           Motor-Driven Cycle
----------------------------------------------------     Motorcycle      Motor-Driven Cycle    with Single Lamp
           Up or Down               Left or Right         (candela)           (candela)       System  (candela)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                   Lower Beam
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.5U...........................  1R to R...........  1400-MAX..........  1400-MAX
1.5U...........................  1R to 3R..........  ..................  ..................  1400-MAX.
1U.............................  1.5L to L.........  700-MAX...........  700-MAX...........  700-MAX.
0.5U...........................  1.5L to L.........  1000-MAX..........  1000-MAX..........  1000-MAX.
0.5U...........................  1R to 3R..........  2700-MAX..........  2700-MAX..........  2700-MAX.
1.5D...........................  9L and 9R.........  700-MIN
2D.............................  0.0R..............  7000-MIN..........  5000-MIN..........  4000-MIN.
2D.............................  3L and 3R.........  4000-MIN..........  3000-MIN..........  3000-MIN.
2D.............................  6L and 6R.........  1500-MIN..........  1500-MIN..........  1500-MIN.
2D.............................  12L and 12R.......  700-MIN
3D.............................  6L and 6R.........  800-MIN...........  800-MIN
4D.............................  0.0R..............  2000-MIN..........  2000-MIN..........  1000-MIN.
4D.............................  4R................  12500-MAX.........  12500-MAX.........  12500-MAX.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                   Upper Beam
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2U.............................  0.0R..............  1000-MIN
1U.............................  3L and 3R.........  2000-MIN..........  2000-MIN.
0.0U...........................  0.0R..............  12500-MIN.........  10000-MIN.
0.5D...........................  0.0R..............  20000-MIN.........  20000-MIN.
0.5D...........................  3L and 3R.........  10000-MIN.........  5000-MIN.
0.5D...........................  6L and 6R.........  3300-MIN..........  2000-MIN.
0.5D...........................  9L and 9R.........  1500-MIN
0.5D...........................  12L and 12R.......  800-MIN
1D.............................  0.0R..............  17500-MIN.........  15000-MIN.
2D.............................  0.0R..............  5000-MIN..........  5000-MIN.
3D.............................  0.0R..............  2500-MIN..........  2500-MIN.
3D.............................  6L and 6R.........  ..................  800-MIN.
3D.............................  9L and 9R.........  1500-MIN
3D.............................  12L and 12R.......  300-MIN
4D.............................  0.0R..............  1500-MIN
4D.............................  0.0R..............  7500-MAX..........  7500-MAX.
ANYWHERE.......................  ANYWHERE..........  75000-MAX.........  75000-MAX.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 
                     Table I--Required Motor Vehicle Lighting Equipment Other Than Headlamps
        Multipurpose Passenger Vehicles, Trucks, Trailers, and Buses, of 80 or More Inches Overall Width
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                              Applicable SAE
                                                                                                standard or
                                        Multipurpose passenger                             recommended practice
                Item                 vehicles, trucks, and buses         Trailers               (See S5 for
                                                                                             subreferenced SAE
                                                                                                materials)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Taillamps .........................  2 red......................  2 red.................  J585e, September 1977.
Stoplamps..........................  2 red......................  2 red.................  SAE J1398, May 1985.
License plate lamp ................  1 white....................  1 white...............  J587 October 1981.
Reflex reflectors..................  4 red; 2 amber.............  4 red; 2 amber........  J594f, January 1977.
Side marker lamps..................  2 red; 2 amber.............  2 red; 2 amber........  J592e, July 1972.
Backup lamp .......................  1 white....................  None..................  J593c, February 1968.
Turn signal lamps..................  2 red or amber; 2 amber....  2 red or amber........  SAE J1395, April 1985.
Turn signal operating unit ........  1..........................  None..................  J589, April 1964.
Turn signal flasher................  1..........................  None..................  J590b, October 1965.
Vehicular hazard warning signal      1..........................  None..................  J910, January 1966.
 operating unit.
Vehicular hazard warning signal      1..........................  None..................  J945, February 1966.
 flasher..
Identification lamps...............  3 amber; 3 red.............  3 red.................  J592e, July 1972.
Clearance lamps....................  2 amber; 2 red.............  2 amber, 2 red........  J592e, July 1972.
Intermediate side marker lamps.      2 amber....................  2 amber...............  J592e, July 1972.
Intermediate side reflex             2 amber....................  2 amber...............  J594f, January 1977.
 reflectors.
Conspicuity........................  See S5.7...................  See S5.7..............  See S5.7
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 
[[Page 296]]
 
 
                                    Table II--Location of Required Equipment
        Multipurpose Passenger Vehicles, Trucks, Trailers, and Buses, of 80 or More Inches Overall Width
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                         Location on--                        Height above road
                                   --------------------------------------------------------   surface measured
               Item                   Multipurpose passenger                                 from center of item
                                       vehicles, trucks, and             Trailers            on vehicle at curb
                                               buses                                               weight
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Headlamps.........................  On the front, each          Not required..............  Not less than 22
                                     headlamp providing the                                  inches (55.9 cm)
                                     upper beam, at the same                                 nor more than 54
                                     height, 1 on each side of                               inches (137.2 cm).
                                     the vertical centerline,
                                     each headlamp providing
                                     the lower beam, at the
                                     same height, 1 on each
                                     side of the vertical
                                     centerline, as far apart
                                     as practicable. See also
                                     S7.
Taillamps.........................  On the rear, 1 on each      On the rear, 1 on each      Not less than 15
                                     side of the vertical        side of the vertical        inches, nor more
                                     centerline, at the same     centerline, at the same     than 72 inches.
                                     height, and as far apart    height, and as far apart
                                     as practicable.             as practicable.
Stop lamps........................  ......do..................  ......do..................      Do.
License plate lamp................  At rear license plate, to   At rear license plate, to   No requirement.
                                     illuminate the plate from   illuminate the plate from
                                     the top or sides.           the top or sides.
Backup lamp.......................  On the rear...............  Not required..............      Do.
Turn signal lamps.................  At or near the front--1     On the rear--1 red or       Not less than 15
                                     amber on each side of the   amber on each side of the   inches, nor more
                                     vertical centerline, at     vertical centerline, at     than 83 inches.
                                     the same height, and as     the same height, and as
                                     far apart as practicable.   far apart as practicable.
                                    On the rear--1 red or
                                     amber on each side of the
                                     vertical centerline, at
                                     the same height, and as
                                     far apart as practicable.
Identification lamps..............  On the front and rear--3    On the rear--3 lamps as     No requirement.
                                     lamps, amber in front,      close as practicable to
                                     red in rear, as close as    the top of the vehicle at
                                     practicable to the top of   the same height, as close
                                     the vehicle, at the same    as practicable to the
                                     height, as close as         vertical centerline, with
                                     practicable to the          lamp centers spaced not
                                     vertical centerline, with   less than 6 inches or
                                     lamp centers spaced not     more than 12 inches apart.
                                     less than 6 inches or
                                     more than 12 inches
                                     apart. Alternatively, the
                                     front lamps may be
                                     located as close as
                                     practicable to the top of
                                     the cab.
Clearance lamps...................  On the front and rear--2    On the front and rear--2        Do.
                                     amber lamps on front, 2     amber lamps on front, 2
                                     red lamps on rear, to       red lamps on rear, to
                                     indicate the overall        indicate the overall
                                     width of the vehicle, one   width of the vehicle, one
                                     on each side of the         on each side of the
                                     vertical centerline, at     vertical centerline, at
                                     the same height, and as     the same height, and as
                                     near the top as             near the top thereof as
                                     practicable.                practicable<SUP>2,</SUP> <SUP>3</SUP> <SUP>4</SUP>.
Intermediate side marker lamps....  On each side--1 amber lamp  On each side--1 amber lamp  Not less than 15
                                     located at or near the      located at or near the      inches.
                                     midpoint between the        midpoint between the
                                     front and rear side         front and rear side
                                     marker lamps.               marker lamps.
Intermediate side reflex            On each side--1 amber       On each side--1 amber       Not less than 15
 reflectors.                         located at or near the      located at or near the      inches nor more
                                     midpoint between the        midpoint between the        than 60 inches.
                                     front and rear side         front and rear side
                                     reflex reflectors.          reflex reflectors.
Conspicuity.......................  See S5.7..................  See S5.7..................  See S5.7
Reflex reflectors.................  On the rear--1 red on each  On the rear--1 red on each      Do.
                                     side of the vertical        side of the vertical
                                     centerline, as far apart    centerline, as far apart
                                     as practicable, and at      as practicable, and at
                                     the same height.            the same height.
                                    On each side--1 red as far  On each side--1 red as far
                                     to the rear as              to the rear as
                                     practicable, and 1 amber    practicable, and 1 amber
                                     as far to the front as      as far to the front as
                                     practicable.                practicable.
Side marker lamps.................  ......do..................  ......do..................  Not less than 15
                                                                                             inches, and on the
                                                                                             rear of trailers
                                                                                             not more than 60
                                                                                             inches.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 
[[Page 297]]
 
 
                              Table III--Required Motor Vehicle Lighting Equipment
  [All Passenger Cars and Motorcycles, and Multipurpose Passenger Vehicles, Trucks, Buses and Trailers of Less Than 80 (2032) Inches (mm) Overall Width]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                               Applicable SAE Passenger cars,                                              standard or
                                    multipurpose                                            recommended practice
             Item                passenger vehicles,       Trailers         Motorcycles         (See S5 for
                                  trucks, and buses                                          subreferenced SAE
                                                                                                 materials)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Headlamps.....................  See S7..............  None.............  See S7.9........  J566 January 1960.
Taillamps.....................  2 red...............  2 red............  1 red...........  J585e, September
                                                                                            1977.
Stoplamps.....................  2 red...............  2 red............  1 red...........  SAE J586, February
                                                                                            1984.
High-mounted stoplamp.........  1 red...............  Not required.....  Not required....  J186a, September
                                                                                            1977.
License plate lamp............  1 white.............  1 white..........  1 white.........  J587, October 1981.
Parking lamps.................  2 amber or white....  None.............  None............  J222, December 1970.
Reflex reflectors.............  4 red; 2 amber......  4 red; 2 amber...  3 red; 2 amber..  J594f, January 1977.
Intermediate side reflex        2 amber.............  2 amber..........  None............  J594f, January 1977.
 reflectors.
Intermediate side marker lamps  2 amber.............  2 amber..........  None............  J592e, July 1972.
Side marker lamps.............  2 red; 2 amber......  2 red; 2 amber...  None............  J592e, July 1972.
Backup lamp...................  1 white.............  None.............  None............  J593c, February 1968.
Turn signal lamps.............  2 red or amber; 2     2 red or amber...  2 amber; 2 red    SAE J588, November
                                 amber.                                   or amber.         1984.
Turn signal operating unit.<SUP>3,</SUP>&  1...................  None.............  1...............  J589, April 1964.
 <SUP>4</SUP>.
Turn signal flasher...........  1...................  None.............  1...............  J590b, October 1965.
Vehicular hazard warning        1...................  None.............  None............  J910, January 1966.
 signal operating unit.
Vehicular hazard warning        1...................  None.............  None............  J945, February 1966.
 signal flasher.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 
                                    Table IV--Location of Required Equipment
  [All Passenger Cars and Motorcycles, and Multipurpose Passenger Vehicles, Trucks, Trailers, and Buses of Less
                                    than 80 (2032) Inches (MM) Overall Width]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                         Location on--
                                    ------------------------------------------------------   Height above road
                                         Passenger cars,                                   surface measured from
                Item                  multipurpose passenger                                 center of item on
                                        vehicles, trucks,             Motorcycles             vehicle at curb
                                       trailers, and buses                                         weight
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Headlamps..........................  On the front, each       See S7.9...................  Not less than 22
                                      headlamp providing the                                inches (55.9 cm) nor
                                      lower beam, at the                                    more than 54 inches
                                      same height, 1 on each                                (137.2 cm).
                                      side of the vertical
                                      centerline, each
                                      headlamp providing the
                                      upper beam, at the
                                      same height, 1 on each
                                      side of the vertical
                                      center-line, as far
                                      apart as practicable.
                                      See also S7.
Taillamps..........................  On the rear--1 on each   On the rear--on the          Not less than 15
                                      side of the vertical     vertical centerline except   inches, nor more
                                      centerline, at the       that if two are used, they   than 72 inches.
                                      same height, and as      shall be symmetrically
                                      far apart as             disposed about the
                                      practicable.             vertical centerline.
Stoplamps..........................  On the rear--1 on each   On the rear--on the          Not less than 15
                                      side of the vertical     vertical centerline except   inches, nor more
                                      centerline, at the       that if two are used, they   than 72 inches.
                                      same height, and as      shall be symmetrically
                                      far apart as             disposed about the
                                      practicable.             vertical centerline.
High-mounted stoplamp..............  On the rear, on the      Not required...............  See S5.3.1.8 for
                                      vertical centerline                                   passenger cars. Not
                                      [See S5.1.1.27,                                       less than 34 inches
                                      S5.3.1.8, and Table                                   for multipurpose
                                      III], effective                                       passenger vehicles,
                                      September 1, 1985, for                                trucks, and buses.
                                      passenger cars only.
 
[[Page 298]]
 
 
License plate lamp.................  At rear license plate,   At rear license plate......  No requirement.
                                      to illuminate the
                                      plate from the top or
                                      sides.
Parking lamps......................  On the front--1 on each  Not required...............  Not less than 15
                                      side of the vertical                                  inches, nor more
                                      centerline, at the                                    than 72 inches.
                                      same height, and as
                                      far apart as
                                      practicable.
Reflex reflectors..................  On the rear--1 red on    On the rear--1 red on the    Not less than 15
                                      each side of the         vertical centerline except   inches, nor more
                                      vertical centerline,     that, if two are used on     than 60 inches.
                                      at the same height,      the rear, they shall be
                                      and as far apart as      symmetrically disposed
                                      practicable.             about the vertical
                                                               centerline.
                                     On each side--1 red as   On each side--1 red as far
                                      far to the rear as       to the rear as
                                      practicable, and 1       practicable, and 1 amber
                                      amber as far to the      as far to the front as
                                      front as practicable.    practicable.
Backup lamp........................  On the rear............  Not required...............  No requirement.
Turn signal lamps..................  At or near the front--1  At or near the front--1      Not less than 15
                                      amber on each side of    amber on each side of the    inches, nor more
                                      the vertical             vertical centerline at the   than 83 inches.
                                      centerline, at the       same height, and having a
                                      same height, and as      minimum horizontal
                                      far apart as             separation distance
                                      practicable.             (centerline of lamps) of
                                     On the rear--1 red or     16 inches. Minimum edge to
                                      amber on each side of    edge separation distance
                                      the vertical             between lamp and headlamp
                                      centerline, at the       is 4 inches.
                                      same height, and as     At or near the rear--1 red
                                      far apart as             or amber on each side of
                                      practicable.             the vertical centerline,
                                                               at the same height and
                                                               having a minimum
                                                               horizontal separation
                                                               distance (centerline to
                                                               centerline of lamps) of 9
                                                               inches. Minimum edge to
                                                               edge separation distance
                                                               between lamp and tail or
                                                               stop lamp is 4-inches,
                                                               when a single stop and
                                                               taillamp is installed on
                                                               the vertical centerline
                                                               and the turn signal lamps
                                                               are red..
Side marker lamps..................  On each side--1 red as   Not required...............  Not less than 15
                                      far to the rear as                                    inches.
                                      practicable, and 1
                                      amber as far to the
                                      front as practicable.
Intermediate side marker lamps.....  On each side--1 amber    Not required...............  Not less than 15
                                      located at or near the                                inches.
                                      midpoint between the
                                      front and rear side
                                      marker lamps.
Intermediate side marker reflectors  On each side--1 amber    Not required...............  Not less than 15
                                      located at or near the                                inches, nor more
                                      midpoint between the                                  than 60 inches.
                                      front and rear side
                                      marker reflectors.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
<ls-thn-eq>Note: (1) The term overall width refers to the nominal design dimension of the widest part of the
  vehicle, exclusive of signal lamps, marker lamps, outside rearview mirrors, flexible fender extensions, and
  mud flaps, determine with doors and windows closed, and the wheels in the straight-ahead position.
This supersedes the interpretation of the term ``overall width'' appearing in the Federal Register of March 1,
  1967 (32 FR 3390).
(2) Paragraph S3.1 and Tables I and III of Sec.  571.108 as amended (32 FR 18033, Dec. 16, 1967), specify that
  certain lamp assemblies shall conform to applicable SAE Standards. Each of these basically referenced
  standards subreferences both SAE Standard J575 (tests for motor vehicle lighting devices and components) which
  in turn references SAE Standard J573 on bulbs, and SAE Standard J567 on bulb sockets.
(3) Paragraph C of SAE Standard J575 states in part: ``Where special bulbs are specified, they should be
  submitted with the devices and the same or similar bulbs used in the tests and operated at their rated mean
  spherical candlepower.'' The Administrator has determined that this provision of SAE Standard J575 permits the
  use of special bulbs, including tubular-type bulbs, which do not conform to the detailed requirements of Table
  I of SAE Standard J573. It follows that the sockets for special bulbs need not conform to the detailed
  requirements of SAE Standard J567. These provisions for special bulbs in no way except the lamp assemblies
  from meeting all performance requirements specified in Federal Standard No. 108, including those specified in
  the basically referenced SAE Standards, and in the subreferenced SAE Standard J575.
 
[41 FR 35522, Aug. 23, 1976]
 
    Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting 
Sec. 571.108, see the List of CFR Sections Affected in the Finding Aids 
section of this volume.
 
[[Page 299]]
 
 
    Effective Date Note:  At 64 FR 45898, Aug. 23, 1999, Sec. 571.108 
was amended by adding S12.6 and S12.7, effective Oct. 22, 1999.

 

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This site is not affiliated with any Federal, State, or Local organization.  The goal is to be as factual as possible, however, the views expressed on this site are the opinions of the author and should not be used to determine the legality of motor vehicle equipment in accordance with Federal laws.  If you require a legal interpretation of your specific situation concerning FMVSS No. 108, you should contact the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's Office of Chief Counsel.